第一部分   阅读理解(Reading Comprehension

题型一 篇章阅读理解之四选一

Part 1  考纲解析

本部分测试考生通过阅读获取书面信息的能力以及考生对篇章语境中的词汇理解和运用能力。4篇文章,每篇长度为300词左右。每个篇章后有5个问题,共20题。考生根据对篇章的理解,从每题的四个选项中选择最佳答案。这是传统意义上的“阅读理解”。

文章材料均选自英文原版材料,包括报刊、杂志、书籍、学术期刊等。包括人文科学、社会科学、自然科学等领域;文章体裁多样,包括记叙文、说明文、议论文等。

测试题型有主旨题、细节题、推理题、词汇题、作者的观点态度题等。

Part 2 题型分类讲解

一、篇章阅读理解(Section A

1.主旨题

1                         

1

Everyone has heard of the San Andreas fault (断层), which constantly threatens California and the West Coast with earthquakes. But how many people know about the equally serious New Madrid fault in Missouri?
    Between December of 1811 and February of 1812, three major earthquakes occurred, all centered around the town of New Madrid, Missouri, on the Mississippi River. Property damage was severe. Buildings in the area were almost destroyed. Whole forests fell at once, and huge cracks opened in the ground, allowing smell of sulfur(硫磺)to filter upward.

This passage is mainly about______      
Athe New Madrid fault in Missouri  Bthe San Andreas and the New Madrid faults

Cthe causes of faults         Dcurrent scientific knowledge about faults

2

   Many a young person tells me he wants to be a writer. I always encourage such people, but I also explain that there’s a big difference between “being a writer” and writing. In most cases these individuals are dreaming of wealth and fame, not the long hour alone at a typewriter. “You’ve got to want to write,” I say to them, “not want to be a writer”.

    The reality is that writing is a lonely, private and poor-paying affair. For every writer kissed by fortune there are thousands more whose longing is never rewarded. When I left a 20-year career in the U.S. Coast Guard to become a freelance(自由栏目)writer, I had no prospects at all. What I did have was a friend who found me my room in a New York apartment building. It didn’t even matter that it was cold and had no bathroom. I immediately bought a used manual typewriter and felt like a genuine writer.

The passage is meant to ______.

A. warn young people of the hardships that a successful writer has to experience
B. advise young people to give up their idea of becoming a professional writer
C. show young people it’s unrealistic for a writer to pursue wealth and fame
D. encourage young people to pursue a writing career

 

2)                     

1

  Traditionally, universities have carried out two main activities: research and teaching. Many experts would argue that both these activities play a critical role in serving the community. The fundamental question, however is : how does the community want or need to be served?

The main idea of the first paragraph is that ____________.

A. traditional universities do a good job serving the society

B. universities must meet the needs of the society

C. research and teaching are of great importance in universities

D. universities play an important role in our society

2

Today anyone will accept money in exchange for goods and services. People use money to buy food, furniture, books, bicycles and hundreds of others they need or want. When they work, they usually get paid in money.

Most of the money today is made of metal or paper. But people used to use all kinds of things as money. One of the first kinds of money was shells.

Shells were not the only things used as money. In China, cloth and knives were used. In the Philippine Islands, rice was used as money. In parts of Africa, Cattle were one of the earliest kinds of money. Other animals were used as money, too.

The first metal coins were made in China. They were around and had a square hole in the center. People strung them together and carried them from place to place.

Different countries have used different metals and designs for their money. The first coins in England were made of tin. Sweden and Russia used copper to make their money. Later, other countries began to make coins of gold and silver.

But even gold and silver were inconvenient if you had to buy something expensive. Again the Chinese thought of a way to improve money. They began to use paper money 76)The first paper money looked more like a note from one person to another than paper money used today.

Money has had an interesting history from the days of shell money until today.

Which do you choose as the best title for this passage?

A. Money and Its Uses

B. Different Things used as Money

C. Different Countries’  Different Money

D. The History of Money

3)                

1

Man is a land animal, but he is also closely tied to the sea. Throughout history the sea has served the needs of man. The sea has provided man with food and a convenient way to travel to many parts of the world. Toady, experts believe that nearly two-thirds of the world’s population live within eighty kilometers of the seacoast.

In the modern technological world the sea offers many resources to help mankind survive. Resources on land are beginning to grow less. The sea, however, still offers hope to supply many of man’s needs in the future.

    The riches of the sea yet to be developed by man’s technology are impressive. Oil and gas explorations have existed for nearly thirty years. Valuable amounts of minerals such as iron, copper and so on exist on the ocean floor.

    Besides oil and gas, the sea may offer new sources of energy. For example, warm temperature of the ocean can be used as the steam in a steamship. Sea may also offer a source of energy as electricity for mankind.

    Technology is enabling man to explore even deeper under the sea. It is obvious that the technology to harvest the sea continues to improve. By the 2050, experts believe that the problems to explore the food, minerals and energy resources of the sea will have been largely solved.

 What is the best title for the passage?
A. Needs of Man.                        B. Sea Harvest and Food
C. Sea and Sources of Energy              D. Sea Exploring Technology

 

2

If you have a chance to go to Finland, you will probably be surprised to find how “foolish” the Finnish people are.

Take the taxi drivers for example. Taxis in Finland are mostly high-class Benz with a fare of two US dollars a kilometer. You can go anywhere in one, tell the driver to drop you at any place, say that you have some business to attend to, and then walk off without paying your fare. The driver would not show the least sign of anxiety.

The dining rooms in all big hotels not only serve their guests, but also serve outside diners. Hotel guests have their meals free, so they naturally go to the free dining rooms to have their meals. The most they would do to show their good faith is to wave their registration card to the waiter. With such a loose check, you can easily use any old registration card to take a couple of friends to dine free of charge.

The Finnish workers are paid by the hour. They are very much on their own as soon as they have agreed with the boss on the rate. From then on they just say how many hours they have worked and they will be paid accordingly.

With so many loopholes(漏洞) in everyday life, surely Finland must be a heaven to those who love to take “petty advantages”. But the strange thing is, all the taxi passengers would always come back to pay their fare after they have attended to their business; not a single outsider has ever been found in the free hotel dining rooms. And workers always give an honest account of the exact hours they put in. As the Finns always act on good faith in everything they do, living in such a society has turned everyone into a real “gentleman”.

    In a society of such high moral practice, what need is there for people to be on guard against others?

It can be concluded that _____

A. Finnish people are not smart enough in daily life

B. Finland has been a good place for cheats

C. the Finnish society is of very high moral level

D. all the Finns are rich

 

主旨题练习题:

1.   There are many factors which may have an influence on adults and children being able to lead a healthy life.

   Nowadays, people are very busy. Often, both parents work outside the home. Children are expected to take on more responsibility at home to help their parents. They also have sporting and leisure activities as well as school expectations.

The busyness also adds another factor: the need to use cars to get from one place to another quickly.

Today, society places a lot of emphasis on technology. Computers, DVDs. CDs, television, PlayStations and Xboxes have become major leisure activities, rather than traditional more active pursuits. This has led to a more sedentary lifestyle.

    The media provide entertainment and information. Unfortunately, they also promote fast food which fits easily into busy lifestyles. It is much more convenient at times to buy a quick takeaway rather than prepare a meal. The media constantly bombard(轰炸) their audience with ‘perfect’ body images, the need to buy the most fashionable clothes, the most up-to-date computer games, the best places to visit and the best things to do.

    Environments vary. We may be exposed to pollution , such as cigarette smoke. This can be harmful to people who suffer from breathing difficulties. Environments where passive smoking is unavoidable make it difficult to lead a healthy life.

    It is important factor influencing healthy lifestyles is motivation. Or the desire to be healthy. Any person who wants to be healthy will find a way to be healthy —if he/she is motivated enough!

The passage is mainly about _____.

A. benefits of a healthy life style

B. demands of daily life

C. factors affecting a healthy lifestyle

D. a positive approach to healthy living

 

2.   Scientists find that hard-working people live longer than average men and women. Career women are healthier than housewives. Evidence shows that the jobless are in poorer health than jobholders.

Why is work good for health? It is because work keeps people busy away from loneliness. Researches show that people feel unhappy, worried and lonely when they have nothing to do. Instead, the happiest are those who are busy. Many high achievers who love their careers feel that they are happiest when they are working hard. Work serves as a bridge between man and reality. By work people come into with each other. By collective activity they find friendship and warmth. This is helpful to health. The loss of work means the loss of everything. It affects man spiritually and makes him ill.

Besides, work gives one a sense of fulfillment and a sense of achievement. Word makes one feel his value and status in society. When a writer finishes his writing or a doctor successfully operates on a patient or a teacher sees his students grow, they are happy beyond words.

From the above we can come to the conclusion that the more you work the happier and healthier you will be. Let us work hard and study and live a happy and healthy life.

The best title for this passage may be _____.

A. People Should Find a Job

B. Working Hard Is Good for Health

C. People Should Make More Friends by Work

D. The Loss of Word Means the Loss of Everything

 

3.  A study of art history might be a good way to learn more about a culture than is possible to learn in general history classes. Most typical history courses concentrate on politics, economics and war. But art history focuses on much more than this because art reflects not only the political values of a people, but also religious beliefs, emotions and psychology. In addition, information about the daily activities of our ancestors can be provided by art. In short, art expresses the essential qualities of a time and a place, and a study of it clearly offers us a deeper understanding than can be found in most history books.

In history books, objective information about the political life of a country is presented; that is, facts about politics are given, but opinions are not expressed. Art, on the other hand, is subjective(主观的): it reflects emotions and opinions. The great Spanish painter Francisco Goya was perhaps the first truly “political” artist. In his well-known painting The Third of May, 1808, he criticized the Spanish government for its abuse (滥用) of power over people.

In the same way, art can reflect a culture’s religious beliefs. For hundreds of years in Europe, religious art had been almost the only type of art that existed. Churches and other religious buildings were filled with paintings that described people and stories from the Bible. Although most people couldn’t read, they could still understand the Bible stories in the pictures on church walls. By contrast, one of the main characteristics of art in the Middle East was (and still is) its absence of human and animal images. This reflects the Islamic belief that statues (雕像) are not holy.

The passage mainly discusses _____.

A. the development of art history

B. the difference between general history and art history

C. what we can learn from art

D. the influence of artists on art history

 

4.  Blind people can “see” things by using other parts of their bodies. This fact may help us to understand our feelings about color. If blind people can sense color differences, then perhaps we, too, are affected by color unconsciously(无意识地)

Manufacturers(生产商)have discovered by experience that sugar sells. Badly in green wrappings, that blue foods are considered unpleasant, and that cosmetics(化妆品) should never be packaged in brown. These discoveries have grown into a branch of color psychology.

Color psychology now finds application in everything from fashion to decoration. Some of our preferences are clearly psychological. Dark blue is the color of the night sky and therefore associated with calm, while yellow is a day color with associations of energy and incentive(刺激). For a primitive man, activity during the day meant hunting and attacking, while he soon saw red as the color of blood and anger and the heat that came with effort. And green is associated with passive defense and self-protection.

Experiments have shown that colors, partly because of their psychological associations, also have a direct psychological effect. People exposed to bring red show an increase in breath, in heartbeat and in blood pressure; red is exciting. Similar exposure to pure blue has exactly the opposite effect; it is a calming color. Because of its exciting meaning, red is chosen as the signal for danger, but closer analysis shows that a vivid yellow can produce a more basic state of alarm. So fire engines and ambulances in some advanced communities are now rushing around in bright yellow colors that stop the traffic dead.

Which of the following could be the most suitable title for the passage?

A. The Branch of Color Psychology

B. Color and Its Meanings

C. The Practical Use of Color Psychology

D. Color and Feelings

 

5.   Noise, commonly defined as unpleasant sound, is a kind of environmental pollution. Particularly in crowded urban areas, the noise produced as a by-product of our advancing technology causes physical and psychological harm, and seriously affects the quality of the those who are suffering from it.

Unlike the eye, the ear has no lid; therefore noise penetrates it easily. Loud noises signal a big danger to human beings. In response, the heart would beat faster, the skin would become pale, and the muscles would get tense. As a matter of fact, some of these responses persist even longer than the noise, occasionally as long as thirty minutes after the sound has ceased.

Because noise is unavoidable in a complex, industrial society, we are constantly responding in the same ways that we would respond to danger. Recently, researchers have concluded that noise and our response may be much more than an annoyance. It may be a serious threat to physical and psychological health and well-being (安乐) causing damage not only to the ear and brain but also to the heart and stomach. We have long known that hearing loss is a number one nonfatal (非致命的) health problem, but now we are learning that some of us with heart disease and cancers may be affected by noise pollution as well.

What is the author’s main point?

A)Loud noises signal a big danger.

B)Noise may be a serious threat to our health.

C)Hearing loss is a number one nonfatal health problem.

D)Noise is unavoidable in daily life.

 

6.

     Most people could agree that, although our age exceeds all previous ages in knowledge, there has been no corresponding increase in wisdom. But agreement ceases as soon as we attempt to define "wisdom" and consider means of promoting it.

     There are several factors that contribute to wisdom. Of these I should put first a sense of proportion: the capacity to take account of all the important factors in a problem and to attach to each its due weight. This has become more difficult than it used to be owing to the extent and complexity of the special knowledge required of various kinds of technicians. Suppose, for example , that you are engaged in research in scientific medicine. The work is difficult and is likely to absorb the whole of your mind. You have no time to consider the effect which your discoveries or inventions may have outside the field of medicine. You succeed as modem medicine has succeeded, in enormously lowering the infant death-rate, not only in Europe and America, but also in Asia and Africa. This has the entirely unintended result of making the food supply inadequate and lowering the standard of life in the parts of the world that have the greatest populations. To take an even more dramatic example , which is in everybody's mind at the present time; you study the make-up of the atom from a disinterested (无利害关系的) desire for knowledge, and by chance place in the hands of a powerful mad man the means of destroying the human race.

     Therefore, with every increase of knowledge and skill, wisdom becomes more necessary, for every such increase augments (增强) our capacity for realizing our purposes, and therefore annulments our capacity for evil, if our purpose are unwise.

What's the main idea of the passage?

A) It is unwise to place the results of scientific research in the hands of a powerful mad man.

B) The more knowledge one has, the wiser one becomes.

C) Any increase of knowledge could lead to disastrous results without the guidance of wisdom.

D) Wisdom increases in proportion to one's age.

 

7.

   Science for self-reliance has, in recent years, become a matter of great concern for Third World and developing nations. These nations, increasingly realize that science is the key to material development in their society and that without it, industrial, social and technological progress would be impossible.

    Many leaders of formerly colonized nations have cried out for the development of the scientific and technological skills among their peoples. With such skills, these nations will be better able to utilize the resources which their, own lands supply. There exists an acute need for scientists, engineers, technicians, economists, physician, lawyers skilled in domestic and inter- national law, and most importantly, perhaps, teachers and administrators with a commitment of sharing their skills with the underdeveloped nations. These nations would then be able to devise educational strategies and techniques needed to teach their students essential skills.

Science for self-reliance: perhaps this might be a good slogan for Third World nations looking to improve their positions among other nations as well as the lives of their citizens.

The purpose of this selection is to _______.

A) describe the superiority of the developed nations

 B) stress the need for scientific and educational development

 C) prove that underdeveloped nations are backward

 D) show the poverty and ignorance of Third World nations

 

8.

   Amtrak (美国铁路客运公司) was experiencing a downswing in ridership (客运量) along the lines comprising its rail system. Of major concern to Amtrak and its advertising agency DDB Needham, were the long-distance western routes where ridership had been declining significantly.

At one time, trains were the only practical way to cross the vast areas of the west. Trains were fast, very luxurious, and quite convenient compared to other forms of transportation existing at the time. However, times change and the automobile became America's standard of convenience. Also, air travel had easily established itself as the fastest method of traveling great distances. Therefore, the task for DDB Needham was to encourage consumers to consider other aspects of train travel in order to change their attitudes and increase the likelihood that trains would be considered for travel in the west. 

Two portions of the total market were targeted: 1) anxious fliersthose concerned with safety, relaxation, and cleanliness and 2) travel loversthose viewing themselves as relaxed, casual, and interested in the travel experience as part of their vacation. The agency then developed a campaign that focused on travel experiences such as freedom, escape, relaxation, and enjoyment of the great western outdoors. It stressed experiences gained by using the trains and portrayed western train trips as wonderful adventures. 

Advertisements showed pictures of the beautiful scenery that could be enjoyed along some of the more famous western routes and emphasized the romantic names of some of these trains (Empire Builder, etc.).

These ads were strategically placed among family-oriented TV shows and programs involving nature and America in order to most effectively reach target audiences. Results were impressive. The Empire Builder, which was focused on in one ad, enjoyed a 15 percent increase in profits on its Chicago to Seattle route.

What's the author's purpose in writing this passage?

A) To show the inability of trains to compete with planes with respect to speed and convenience.

B) To stress the influence of the automobile on America's standard of convenience.

C) To emphasize the function of travel agencies in market promotion.

D) To illustrate the important role of persuasive communication in changing consumer attitudes.

 

 9.

     Medical bills in the Unites States have risen violently since 1960's and steps need to be taken to reverse this trend or the average American will not be able to afford medical care. The major factor in increasing the cost of medical care has been the dramatic increase in the cost of hospital services. The rise in the cost of hospitalization can be only partly blamed on inflation since hospital bills in the last two decades have risen at a considerably higher rate than inflation.

     Another factor cited by doctors as a major cause for the increased cost of medical care is malpractice (治疗错误). Increasingly large awards for malpractice have caused doctors to increase their rates to cover the higher malpractice insurance. Because of the large malpractice awards, doctors are also prescribing more conservative and more extensive and therefore more costly treatment for patients as a defense against malpractice claims. Whatever the causes of the wild increases in the cost of medical care are, the government needs to take strong action before it is too late for Americans.

The passage is mainly about ______.

 A) the increasing cost of malpractice insurance

 B) factors causing the increase in U.S. medical bills

 C) steps for Americans to take to obtain medical care

 D) the dramatic medical profession

 

10.

     On June 17th, 1744, the officials from Maryland Virginia held a talk with the Indians of the Six Nations. The Indians were invited to send boys to William and Mary College. In a letter the next day they refused the offer as follows:

     We know that you have a high opinion of the kind of learning taught in your colleges, and that the costs of living of our young men, while with you, would be very expensive to you. We are convinced that you mean to do us good by your proposal; and we thank you heartily, but you must know that different nations have different ways of looking at things, and you will therefore not be offended if our ideas of this kind of education happen not to be the same as yours. We have had some experience of it. Several of our young people were formerly brought up at the colleges of the northern provinces; they were taught all your sciences; but when they came hack to us they were bad runners, ignorant of every means of living in the woods, they were totally good for nothing.

     We are, however, not the less obliged by your kind offer, though we refuse to accept it, and to show our grateful sense of it, if the gentlemen of Virginia will send us a dozen of their sons, we will take care of their education, teach them in all we know and make men of them.

This passage is about _______.

 A) the talk between the Indians and the officials

 B) the colleges of the northern provinces

 C) the educational values of the Indians

 D) the problems of the Americans in the mid-eighteenth century

 

 

2.细节题

1

    In 1939 two brothers, Mac and Dick McDonald, started a drive-in restaurant in San Bernardino, California. They carefully chose a busy corner for their location. They had run their own businesses for years, first a theater, then a barbecue(烤肉)restaurant, and then another drive-in. But in their new operation, they offered a new, shortened menu: French fries, hamburgers, and sodas. To this small selection they added one new concept: quick service, no waiters or waitresses, and no tips.
1. Mac and Dick managed all of the following businesses except   .
 Aa drive-in    Ba cinema    Ca theater     Da barbecue restaurant

2

    Foxes and farmers have never got on well. These small dog-like animals have long been accused of killing farm animals. They are officially classified as harmful and farmers try to keep their numbers down by shooting or poisoning them.

Farmers in Britain have been hunting foxes __ .

  A) for  recreation

  B) in the interests of the farmers

  C) to limit the fox population

  D) to show off their wealth

 

3

    The reflective towers of New York City, which is on the Atlantic migrating(迁徙)route, can be deadly for birds. We live in an age of glass, said Ms. Laurel, an architect. It can be a perfect mirror in certain lights, and the larger the glass, the more dangerous it is. About 90,000 birds are killed by flying into buildings in the city each year. Often, they strike the lower levels of glass towers after searching for food in nearby parks. Such crashes are the second-leading cause of death for migrating birds, after habitat(栖息地) loss, with an estimated number of death ranging up to a billion a year.

What is the number one cause of death for migrating birds?

A. Climate change.            B. Habitat loss.

C. Lack of food.              D. Crashing into buildings.

 

4

    In 1944 a 22-year-old Army medic(卫生兵) was answering a battle-field cry for help when fragments of an exploding German shell tore into him. "Gee doc, I feel like both my arms were blown off," George Lott told his battalion’s surgeon as he staffered into a first-aid station (急救站) near the front in northeastern France. It was the beginning of a painful 5000 mile journey through three hospitals as doctor tried to save the medic’s life.

George Lott got wounded when he was__________

A)fighting shoulder-to-shoulder with soldiers of his battalion.

B)fighting with French soldiers.

C)in a battlefield crying for help.

D)running toward a wounded soldier who was crying for help.

 

5

    The respect in which he was held was partly owing to the man himself, with his warm friendliness, his good sense, his politeness, his gay spirits, his artistic integrity, his love of both the old World and the New Thackery described Irving as a "gentleman, who, though himself born in no very high sphere, was most finished, polished, witty; socially the equal of the most refined Europeans". In England he was granted an honorary degree from Oxford --- an unusual honor for a citizen of a young, uncultured nation ---and be received the medal of the Royal Society of Literature; America made him ambassador to Spain.  

According to Thachery’s description, which of the following statements is NOT TRUE?

  A)Irving tried to show elegance in society.

  B)Irving’s parents were not aristocratic.

  C)Irving’s social grace were unusual.

  D)Irving was inferior to Europeans of refinement.

 

细节题练习:

1.

    In Switzerland, six miles west of Geneva, lies a collection of laboratories and buildings, and most curious of all, a circular mound of earth more than 650 feet in diameter. This cluster has unique  importance. It is Europe’s one and only atomic city dedicated to investigating the atom for peaceful purposes. The strange buildings belong to the European Council for Nuclear Research, more popularly  known, from its French initials, as CERN.

The laboratories and buildings discussed in the passage belong to _____.

A)a private research organization

B)Switzerland

C)the European Council for Nuclear Research

D)the United Nation

 

2.

    In a family where the roles of men and women are not sharply separated and where many household tasks are shared to a greater or lesser extent, notions of make superiority are hard to maintain. The pattern of sharing in tasks and in decisions makes for equality, and this in turn leads to further sharing . In such a home, the growing boy and girl learn to accept that equality more easily than did their parents and to prepare more fully for participation in a world characterized by cooperation rather than by the "battle of sexes".

Sharing tasks and decisions in a family leads to _____.  

A)momism   B)neo-popism   C)inequality   D)further sharing

 

3.

    Beyond the value of the journal as record, there is the value of the discipline it teaches. The journalist begins to pay closer attention to what happens to and around himself. He develops and sharpens his skills of observation. He learns the usefulness of languages as a means of representing what he sees, and gains skill and certainty in the expression of his experiences. To have given up one’s experience to words is to have begun marking out the limits and potential of its meaning. In the journal that meaning is developed and clarified to oneself. When the intention of the development of that meaning is the consideration of another reader, the method of the journal redirects itself and it becomes the essay.

According to the author, keeping a journal is good for _____.

 A)observation and expression

 B)certainly and discipline

 C)experience and adventure

 D)consideration and development

 

4.

    There are many other foods that have traveled from South America to the Old World. But some others went in the opposite direction. Brazil is now the World’s largest grower of coffee, and coffee is an important crop in Colombia and other South American countries. But it is native to Ethiopia. It was first made into a drink by Arabs during the 1400’s.

Coffee originally came from_________.

 A. Brazil    B. Colombia  C. Ethiopia  D. Arabia

 

 

5.

    For the person keeping a journal, whatever he experiences and wants to hold he can write down. But to get it down on paper begins another adventure. For he has to focus on what he has experienced, and to be able to say what, in fact, the experience is. What of it is new? What of it is remarkable because of associations in the memory it stirs up? Is it a good or bad thing to have happened? And why, specifically? The questions multiply themselves quickly. As one tries to find the words that best represent this discovery, the experience becomes even more clear in its shape and meaning.

The author thinks of keeping a journal as _____.

A)an association

B)an adventure

C)a discovery

D)an observation

6

... may count towards a degree, in many American universities the total work for a degree consists of thirty-six courses each lasting for one semester. A typical course consists of three classes per week for fifteen weeks: while attending a university a student will probably attend four or five courses during each semester. Normally a student would expect to take four years attending two

Normally a student would at least attend _______ classes each week. 

 A) 36            B) 12           C) 20           D) 15

 

7

    In 1993, New York State ordered stores to charge a deposit on beverage (饮料) containers. Within a year, consumers had returned millions of aluminum cans and glass and plastic bottles. Plenty of companies were eager to accept the aluminum and glass as raw materials for new products. But because few could figure out what to do with the plastic, much of it wound up buried in landfills (垃圾填埋场). The problem was not limited to New York. Unfortunately, there were too few uses for second-hand plastic.

What regulation was issued by New York State concerning beverage containers?

A) Beverage companies should be responsible for collecting and reusing discarded plastic soda bottles.

B) Throwaways should be collected by the state for recycling.

C) A fee should be charged on used containers for recycling.

D) Consumers had to pay for beverage containers and could get their money back on returning them.

 

8

Among the arguments for uniforms, one of the first is that in the eyes of most people they look more professional than civilian (百姓的) clothes. People have become conditioned to expect superior quality from a man who wears a uniform. The television repairman who wears a uniform tends to inspire more trust than one who appears in civilian clothes. Faith in the skill of a garage mechanic is increased by a uniform. What easier way is there for a nurse, a policeman, a barber, or a waiter to lose professional identity than to step out of uniform?

People are accustomed to think that a man in uniform _______.

A) suggests quality work

B) discards his social identity

C) appears to be more practical

D) looks superior to a person in civilian clothes

9

In the past four years, welfare rolls in Athens County have been cut in half. But 70 percent of the people who left in the past two years took jobs that paid less than $6 an hour. The result: The Athens County poverty rate still remains at more than 30 percenttwice the national average.

For advocates (代言人)for the poor, that's an indication much more needs to be done. "More people are getting jobs, but it's not making their lives any better," says Kathy Lairn,a policy analyst at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities in Washington.

What is worth noting from the example of Athens County is that _______.

A) greater efforts should be made to improve people's living standards

B) 70 percent of the people there have been employed for two years

C) 50 percent of the population no longer relies on welfare

D) the living standards of most people are going down

 

10

The human brain contains 10 thousand million cells and each of these may have a thousand connections. Such enormous numbers used to discourage us and cause us to dismiss the possibility of making a machine with humanlike ability, but now that we have grown used to moving forward at such a pace we can be less sure. Quite soon, in only 10 or 20 years perhaps, we will be able to assemble a machine as complex as the human brain, and if we can we will. It may then take us a long time to render it intelligent by loading in the right software or by altering the architecture but that too will happen.

In what way can we make a machine intelligent?

A) By making it work in such environments as deserts, oceans or space.

B) By working hard for 10 or 20 years.

C) By either properly programming it or changing its structure.

D) By reproducing it.

3.判断词汇意义

1

Kroc was a salesman who met the McDonald brothers in 1954, when he was selling milk shake-mixing machines. He quickly saw the unique appeal of the brothers' fast-food restaurants and bought the right to franchise(特许经营)other copies of their restaurants. The agreement struck included the right to duplicate the menu. The equipment, even their red and white buildings with the golden arches(拱门). 

As used in the second sentence of the third paragraph, the word “unique” means  . 
Aspecial   Bfinancial  C attractive   Dpeculiar


2

As glass office and apartment towers have increased in the last decade, so, too, have calls to make them less deadly to birds. San Francisco adopted bird-safety standards for new buildings in July. The United States Green Building Council, a nonprofit industry group that encourages the creation of environmentally conscious buildings, will introduce a bird-safety credit this fall as part of its environmental certification process.

There are no easy fixes, however. A few researchers are exploring glass designs that use ultraviolet(紫外线的) signals, but they are still in their infancy. Covers, dot patterns, shades and nets are the main options available. 

What does the word fixes in the second paragraph probably mean?

A) Choices       B) Explanations       C) Solutions       D) Developments


3

In the last 500 years , nothing about people ----not their clothes, ideas, or languages----has changed as much as what they eat. The original chocolate drink was made from the seeds of the cocoa tree by South American Indians. The Spanish introduced it to the rest of the world during the 1500’s. And although it was very expensive, it quickly became fashionable. In London shops where chocolate drinks were served became important meeting places. Some still exist today.

“Some ”in “Some still exist today” means _________.

 A) some cocoa trees.

 B) some chocolate drinks.

 C) some shops.

 D) some South American Indians.

 

4

Buildings shook in New York City, and clocks were stopped in Washington, D.C. Scientists now know that America's two major faults are essentially different. The San Andreas is a horizontal boundary between two major land masses that are slowly moving in opposite directions. California earthquakes result when the movement of these two masses suddenly lurches(倾斜) forward.
As used in the first sentence of the fourth paragraph, the word “essentially” means    
Agreatly   Bbasically    Cextremely  Dnecessarily


5

Then came the First World War and the Second World War. After each war, new ideas, new attitudes, new trades and occupations were revealed to villagers. The long—established order of society was no longer taken for granted. Electricity and the motorcar were steadily operating to make “village life” and “town life” almost alike. Now with the highly developed science and technology and high — level social welfare for all, there is no point whatever in talking any longer about “village life. “ It is just life, and that a better life.

The expression “... there is no point whatever in talking any longer about...” in the paragraph means that _________

A) there is no end to the talking about....

B) It is harmful to talk about….

C) It is meaningless to talk about....

D) there is no reason for talking about

  
判断词汇意义题练习:

 

1.  After a year or so, however, I still hadn’t gotten a break and began to doubt myself. It was so hard to sell a story that I barely made enough to eat. But I knew I wanted to write, I had dreamed about it for years. I wasn’t going to be one of those people who die wondering: What if ? I would keep putting my dream to the test even though it meant living with uncertainty and fear of failure. This is the shadowland of hope, and anyone with a dream must learn to live there.

“Shadowland” in the last sentence refers to _____.

A) the wonderland on often dreams about
B) the bright future that one is looking forward to
C) the state of uncertainty before one’s final goal is reached
D) a world that exists only in one’s imagination

 

2.  Today, society places a lot of emphasis on technology. Computers, DVDs. CDs, television, PlayStations and Xboxes have become major leisure activities, rather than traditional more active pursuits. This has led to a more sedentary lifestyle.

The word “sedentary” in Paragraph 4 probable means _____.

A. having a lot of things to do

B. involving little exercise or physical activity

C. being isolated from the outside world

D. experiencing a lot of stress

 

3.  Scientists find that hard-working people live longer than average men and women. Career women are healthier than housewives. Evidence shows that the jobless are in poorer health than jobholders. The underlined word “average” in Paragraph I means ______.

A. healthy      B. lazy      C. ordinary      D. poor

 

4. Noise, commonly defined as unpleasant sound, is a kind of environmental pollution. Particularly in crowded urban areas, the noise produced as a by-product of our advancing technology causes physical and psychological harm, and seriously affects the quality of the those who are suffering from it.

What does the word “noise” mean in this passage?

A) by-product of technology.

B) Unpleasant sound.

C) Physical and psychology harm.

D) A danger to people’s life.

 

5. Other factors contributing to the rise of globalization are new communications technologies, and better transportation systems. These have enabled companies to grow into multinationals—producing goods on one side of the planet and selling them on the other.

The word multinationalsmost probably means

A)companies producing many kinds of goods

B)companies controlling economies of several countries

C)companies having branches in several countries

D)companies operating many factories within a district

 

6.... Now it's true that the human body has developed its millions of nerves to be highly sensitive to what goes on both inside and outside of it. This helps us adjust to the world. Without our nerves, and our brain, which is a bundle of nerves, we wouldn't know what's happening. But we pay for our sensitivity. We can feel pain when the slightest thing is wrong with any part of your body.

The sentence "we pay for our sensitivity" in the second paragraph implies that ______.

A) it pays to be sensitive            B) torture is not necessarily a bad thing

C) our pain is worth feeling          D) when we have pain, we feel it strongly

 

7.

In earlier grades, the use of so-called token economics, in which students handle challenging problems and receive performance-based points toward valued rewards, shows promise in raising effort and creativity, the Delaware psychologist claims.

The phrase “token economics” probably refers to__________.
A) ways to develop economy.
B) systems of rewarding students.
C) approaches to solving problems.
D) methods of improving performance.

8.

Social support cushions stress in a number of ways. First, friends, relatives, and co-workers may let us know that they value us. Our self-respect is strengthened when we feel accepted by others despite our faults and difficulties. Second, other people often provide us with informational support. They help us to define and understand our problems and find solutions to them. Third, we typically find social companionship supportive. Engaging in leisure-time activities with others helps us to meet our social needs while at the same time distracting (转移...注意力) us from our worries and troubles. Finally, other people may give us instrumental supportfinancial aid, material resources, and needed servicesthat reduces stress by helping us resolve and cope with our problems.

Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word "cushions"(Line 1)?

A) Adds up to. B) Does away with.

C) Lessens the effect of.     D) Lays the foundation for.

 

9.

  ...Can we pay too much attention to details? Absolutely. Perfectionists struggle over little things at the cost of something larger they work toward. "To keep from losing the forest for the trees," says Chiles Garfield, associate professor at the University of California, San Francisco, "we must constantly ask ourselves how the details we're working on fit into the larger picture. If they don't, we should drop them and move to something else.”...

The word "perfectionists" refers to those who _______.  

A) pay too much attention to details only to lose their major objectives

B) know how to adjust their goals according to the circumstances

C) demand others to get everything absolutely right

D) are capable of achieving perfect results in whatever they do

 

10.

    It is true that Brazil, like many other countries, has laws against pollution, but these laws are not enforced strictly enough. It is cheaper for companies to take no notice of the laws and pay the fines than to buy the expensive equipment that will reduce the pollution. It is clear, therefore, that economic growth is more important to the government than to the health of the workers.

The word enforced could be best replaced by which of the following?

A) carried out      B) drawn up        C) looked over         D) figured out

 

常考例子:

1. ___________________
例:All other birthdays are called sing il (born day).The sixty-first birthday is called huan gup

    (beginning of new life).


2. ____________________

 例:

1) Carbon monoxide is a noxious gas which can cause death .

2) The female mosquito is a vampire and lives on blood.

3) Please give me your recipe for this cakeso I can make it too

  A) a dish               B) directions for cooking

 C) a meal              D) directions to your house

4) The offspring of a pair of birds leave the nest when they are big enough to fly

  A) children              B) ancestors  

  C) generations           D) Mates

5) The scalp covers the head.Hair grows out of it

   A) a kind of hat            B) the color of hair

   C) a cloth over the head     D) the skin on the head

 

3. ____________________

例:The door was so low that I hit my head on the lintel.

    

4. ____________________

例:“She went to school for 12 years and she can't write a sentence?" Timken said. "They made an  

     illiterate out of my daughter!"

 

5._____________________

例:She is studying glaucoma and other diseases of the eye .

 

6. _____________________

例:One of the predominant concerns today is the future of our natural resources. This issue is of

greatest importance because it is becoming clear to many people that our present resources

 will not last forever.

7._____________________
例:

1) Jane was talking with others while Eliza remained reticent all the time .

2) Unlike her gregarious sister, Jane is a shy person, who does not like to go to parties, or to make new friends.

3) American businessmen expect employees to be punctual. They do not expect that the workers will come late.

 

8.______________________

例:New York City developers competed among themselves, with excessively taller buildings claiming the title worlds tallest skyscrapers in the 1920s and early 1930s.

 

9. _______________________

例:

They overestimated the interviewees ability and asked him many difficult questions.

John drives too fastand he often drives in the middle of the streetHe doesn't watch what the other cars are doingHe is a reckless driver

 

10._______________________

例:

1) A small museum near Vicksburg, Mississippi, contains some excellent examples of Civil War memorabilia, such as flags, cannon balls, maps, guns, photographs, and both Union and Confederate uniforms.

Today young couples who are just starting their households often spend lots of their money on appliances --for instance, washing machines, refrigerators and color televisions.

 

4.判断、推理、引申例题

1

    Kroc was a salesman who met the McDonald brothers in 1954, when he was selling milk shake-mixing machines. He quickly saw the unique appeal of the brothers' fast-food restaurants and bought the right to franchise(特许经营)other copies of their restaurants. The agreement struck included the right to duplicate the menu, the equipment, even their red and white buildings with the golden arches(拱门).   
    Today McDonald's is really a household name. Its names for its sandwiches have come to mean hamburger in the decades since the day Ray Kroc watched people rush up to order fifteen-cent hamburgers. In 1976, McDonald's had over $ 1 billion in total sales. Its first twenty-two years is one of the most incredible success stories in modern American business history.  

We may infer from this passage that ______      
AMac and Dick McDonald never became wealthy for they sold their idea to Kroc   

BThe location the McDonalds chose was the only source of the great popularity of their drive-in

CForty years ago there were numerous fast-food restaurants

DRay Kroc was a good businessman

2

    In the process goes too far and man’s role is regarded as less important- and that has happened in some cases --- we are as badly off as before, only in reverse. It is time to reassess the role of the man in the  American family. We are getting a little tired of "Momism" --- but we  don’t want to exchange it for a "neo-Popism". What we need, rather, is  the recognition that bringing up children involves a partnership of  equals. There are signs that psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and specialists on the family are becoming more aware of the  part men play and that they have decided that women should not receive  all the credits --- nor all the blame. We have almost given up saying that a woman’s place is in the home. We are beginning, however, to analyze man’s place in the home and to insist that he does have a place in it. Nor is that place irrelevant to the healthy development of the child. The family is a cooperative enterprise for which it is difficult to lay down rules, because each family needs to work out its own ways for solving its own problems. Excessive authoritarianism has unhappy  consequences, whether it wears skirts or trousers, and the ideal of  equal rights and equal responsibilities is pertinent (有关) not only to  a healthy family.

According to the author, man’s role in the American family _____.

A)less important than woman’s

B)equal to woman’s

C)irrelevant to the healthy development of the child

D)hard to maintain

 

3

    In recent years universities have been coming under increasing pressure from both the governments and the public to ensure that they do not remain “ivory towers”(象牙塔)of study separated from the realities of everyday life. University teachers have been encouraged, and in some cases constrained (强逼), to provide more courses which produce graduates with the technical skills required for the commercial use. If Aristotle wanted to work in a university in the UK today, he would have a good chance of teaching computer science but would not be so readily employable as a philosopher.

We can infer from the second paragraph that__________.

A. the society is not satisfied with the present college education

B. the governments interfere too much with college education

C. teacher are forced to do what they don’t like to do

D. teachers dislike teaching commercially useful courses

 

4

    But even gold and silver were inconvenient if you had to buy something expensive. Again the Chinese thought of a way to improve money. They began to use paper money. The first paper money looked more like a note from one person to another than paper money used today.

 Why does the author say that even gold and silver were inconvenient if you had to buy something expensive?

 A. Because they are easy to steal.

 B. Because they are difficult for people to obtain.

 C. Because they are not easy to carry around.

 D. Because they themselves are expensive, too.

 

5

   There are many other foods that have traveled from south America to the Old World. But some others went in the opposite direction. Brazil is now the World’s largest grower of coffee, and coffee is an important crop in Colombia and other South American countries. But it is native to Ethiopia. It was first made into a drink by Arabs during the 1400’s.

  According to an Arabic legend, coffee was discovered when a goatherd name Kaldi noticed that his goats were attracted to the red berries on a coffee bush. He tried one and experienced the “wide –awake” feeling that one-third of the world’s population now starts the day with.

The Arabic legend is used to prove that _________.

 A. coffee was first discovered by Kaldi.

 B. coffee was first discovered by Kaldi’s goats.

 C. coffee was first discovered in south American countries.

 D. coffee drinks were first made by Arbas.

 

判断、推理、引申练习题:

1. 

    Each time we produce a new English dictionary, our aim is always the same: what can we do to make the dictionary more helpful for students of English? As a result of our research with students and discussions with teachers, on providing more examples for this English dictionary.

Examples help students to remember the word they have looked up in the dictionary because it is easier both to remember and to understand a word within a context (上下文). The examples also show that words are often used in many different contexts. For these reasons, we have included 40 per cent more examples in this new book.

    We edit all the examples to remove difficult words and to make sure they are easier to understand.

We very much hope this new book will be of use not only to the students of English but also to the teachers.

The passage is most probably taken from ________.

A) a letter to the editor

B) a comment on a novel

C) an introduction to a dictionary

D) a news-report in the newspaper

 

2. 

    People with decreasing incomes were next and people with stable incomes borrowed the least. This shows us that traditional assumptions(假设) about earning and spending are not always reliable. Another traditional assumption is that if people who have money expect prices to go up they will hasten to buy. If they expect prices to go down, they will postpone buying. But research surveys have shown that this is not always true. The expectations of price increases may not stimulate buying.

According to paragraph 2, research surveys have proved that _________

A) price increases always stimulate people to hasten to buy things

B) rising prices may make people put off their purchase of certain things

C) women are more sensitive to the rising in prices than men

D) the expectations of price increases often make buyers feel angry.

3.

    The reality is that writing is a lonely, private and poor-paying affair. For every writer kissed by fortune there are thousands more whose longing is never rewarded. When I left a 20-year career in the U.S. Coast Guard to become a freelance(自由栏目)writer, I had no prospects at all. What I did have was a friend who found me my room in a New York apartment building. It didn’t even matter that it was cold and had no bathroom. I immediately bought a used manual typewriter and felt like a genuine writer.

What can be concluded from the passage?

A) Genuine writers often find their work interesting and rewarding.
B) A writer’s success depends on luck rather than on efforts.
C) Famous writers usually live in poverty and isolation.
D) The chances for writer to become successful are small

 

4. 

    Besides oil and gas, the sea may offer new sources of energy. For example, warm temperature of the ocean can be used as the steam in a steamship. Sea may also offer a source of energy as electricity for mankind.

Why does the author mention a steamship?
A) To illustrate that man can make use of sources of energy from the sea.
B) To show that a steamship is better than other kinds of ships.
C) To argue that man should use steamships.
D) To indicate that it is warmer in the ocean than on land.

 

5.

    Looking back on my childhood. I am convinced that naturalists are born and not made. Although we were brought up in the same way, my brothers and sisters soon abandoned their pressed(紧抱的) flowers and insects. Unlike them ,I hand no ear for music and languages, I was not an early reader and I could not do mental arithmetic.

The first paragraph tells us that the author _____

A) lost his hearing when he was a child

B) didn’t like his brothers and sisters

C) was born to a naturalist’s family

D) was interested in flowers an insects in his childhood

 

6.   

Priscilla Ouchida's “energy-efficient” house turned out to be a horrible dream. When she and her engineer husband married a few years ago, they built a $100,000, three-bedroom home in California. Tightly sealed to prevent air leaks, the house was equipped with small double-paned (双层玻璃的) windows and several other energy-saving features. Problems began as soon as the couple moved in, however. Priscilla's eyes burned. Her throat was constantly dry. She suffered from headaches and could hardly sleep. It was as though she had suddenly developed a strange illness.

Experts finally traced the cause of her illness. The level of formaldehyde (甲醛) gas in her kitchen was twice the maximum allowed by federal standards for chemical workers. The source of the gas? Her new kitchen cabinets and wall-to-wall carpeting.

It can be learned from the passage that the Ouchidas' house ______.

A) is well worth the money spent on its construction

B) is almost faultless from the point of energy conservation

C) failed to meet energy conservation standards

D) was designed and constructed in a scientific way 

 

7.

Amtrak (美国铁路客运公司) was experiencing a downswing in ridership (客运量) along the lines comprising its rail system. Of major concern to Amtrak and its advertising agency DDB Needham, were the long-distance western routes where ridership had been declining significantly.

At one time, trains were the only practical way to cross the vast areas of the west. Trains were fast, very luxurious, and quite convenient compared to other forms of transportation existing at the time. However, times change and the automobile became America's standard of convenience. Also, air travel had easily established itself as the fastest method of traveling great distances. Therefore, the task for DDB Needham was to encourage consumers to consider other aspects of train travel in order to change their attitudes and increase the likelihood that trains would be considered for travel in the west. 

It can be inferred from the passage that the drop in Amtrak ridership was due to the fact that ______.

A) trains were not suitable for short distance passenger transportation

B) trains were not the fastest and most convenient form of transportation

C) trains were not as fast and convenient as they used to be

D) trains could not compete with planes in terms of luxury and convenience

 

 

8.

Why is America lagging behind in the global PR race? First, Americans as a whole tend to be fairly provincial and take more of an interest in local affairs. Knowledge of world geography, for example , has never been strong in this country. Secondly, Americans lag behind their European and Asian counterparts in knowing a second language. Less than 5 percent of Burson-Marshall's U.S. employees know two languages. Ogilvy and Mather has about the same percentage. Conversely, some European firms have half or more of their employees fluent in a second language. Finally, people involved in PR abroad tend to keep a closer eye on international affairs. In the financial PR area, for instance, most Americans read the Wall Street Journal. Overseas, their counterparts read the Journal as well as the Financial Times of London and The Economist, Publications not often read in this country.

We learn from this paragraph that employees in the American PR industry_______.

A) speak at least one foreign language fluently

B) are ignorant about world geography

C) are not as sophisticated as their European counterparts

D) enjoy reading a great variety of English business publications

 

 

9.

   Just seven years ago, the Jarvik-7 artificial heart was being cheered as the model of human creativeness. The sight of Barney Clark—alive and conscious after trading his diseased heart for a metal-and-plastic pump—convinced the press, the public and many doctors that the future had arrived. It hadn't. After monitoring production of the Jarvik-7 and reviewing its effects on the 150 or so...

 According to the passage the Jarvik-7 artificial heart proved to be _____.

  A) a good life-saver               B) a technical wonder

  C) a technical failure              D) an effective means to treat heart disease

 

 

5.涉及作者的观点态度题

1

    Washington Irving was America’s first man of letters to be known internationally. His works were received enthusiastically both in England and in the United States. He was, in fact, one of the most successful writers of his time in either country, delighting a large general public and at the same time winning the admiration of fellow writers like Scott in Britain and Poe and Tarwthorne in the United States. The respect in which he was held was partly owing to the man himself, with his warm friendliness, his good sense, his politeness, his gay spirits, his artistic integrity, his love of both the old World and the New Thackery described Irving as a "gentleman, who, though himself born in no very high sphere, was most finished, polished, witty; socially the equal of the most refined Europeans". In England he was granted an honorary degree from Oxford --- an unusual honor for a citizen of a young, uncultured nation ---and be received the medal of  the Royal Society of Literature; America made him ambassador to Spain. Irving’s background provides little to explain his literary achievements. A gifted but delicate child, he had little schooling. He studied law, but without zeal, and never did practice seriously. He was immune to his strict Presbyterian home environment, frequenting both social gatherings and the theater.

The tone of the author can be said to be _____.

A)serious     B)mild     C)friendly     D)appreciative

 

2

 However, misplaced politeness can also be dangerous. Typical Example s are the driver who brakes violently to allow a car to emerge from a side street at some hazard to following traffic, when a few seconds later the road would be clear anyway; or the man who waves a child across a zebra crossing into the path of oncoming vehicles that may be unable to stop in time. The same goes for encouraging old ladies to cross the road wherever and whenever they dare to. It always amazes me that the highways are not covered with the dead bodies of these grannies.

In the writer's opinion, _______________________________________.

A) strict traffic regulations are badly needed

B) drivers should apply road politeness properly

C) rude drivers should be punished

D) drivers should avoid traffic jams

 


3

    Traditionally, universities have carried out two main activities: research and teaching. Many experts would argue that both these activities play a critical role in serving the community. The fundamental question , however is : how does the community want or need to be served?

    In recent years universities have been coming under increasing pressure from both the governments and the public to ensure that they do not remain “ivory towers”(象牙塔)of study separated from the realities of everyday life. University teachers have been encouraged, and in some cases constrained (强逼), to provide more courses which produce graduates with the technical skills required for the commercial use. If Aristotle wanted to work in a university in the UK today, he would have a good chance of teaching computer science but would not be so readily employable as a philosopher.

    A post-industrial society requires large numbers of computer programmers, engineers, managers and technicians to maintain and develop its economic growth but “man”, as the Bible says,“ does not live by bread alone.” Apart from requiring medical and social services, which do not directly contribute to economic growth, the society should also value and enjoy literature, music and the arts. In these cost-conscious times, it has even been pointed out in justification for the funding of the arts that they can be useful money earners. A successful musical play, for instance, can contribute as much to the Gross National Product through tourist dollars as any other things. 
The author believes that_________.

  A art is useful only when it is made into a money earner

  B the promotion of economic growth is the only goal of today’s society

  C universities should not provide literature or art courses

  D the society needs both technical skills and arts

 

4

   The young people who talk of the village as being “dead” are talking nothing but nonsense, as in their hearts they must surely know.

    No, the village is not dead. There is more life in it now than there ever was. But it seems that “Village life” is dead. Gone for ever. It began to decline (衰落) about a hundred years ago, when many girls left home to go into service in town many miles away, and men also left home in increasing number in search of a work, and home was where work was.

   There are still a number of people alive today who can remember. What “village life” meant the early years of the present century? It meant knowing and being known by everybody else in the village. It meant finding your entertainment in the village of within walking distance of it. It meant housewives tied to the home all day and every day. It meant going to bed early to save lamp —oil and coal.

   Then came the First World War and the Second World War. After each war, new ideas, new attitudes, new trades and occupations were revealed to villagers. The long — established order of society was no longer taken for granted. Electricity and the motorcar were steadily operating to make “village life” and “town life” almost alike. Now with the highly developed science and technology and high — level social welfare for all, there is no point whatever in talking any longer about “village life. “ It is just life, and that a better life.

   Finally, if we have any doubts about the future, or about the many changes, which we have seen in our lives, we have only to look in at the school playground any mid — morning; or see the children as they walk homeward in little groups. Obviously these children are better fed, better clothed, better educated, healthier, prettier and happier than any generation of children that ever before walked the village street.

From the passage we can see that the writer’s attitude toward “village life” is __________

A positive    B negative    C neutral    D unclear

5

     The investigations mentioned above were carried out in America; condition most helpful to spending appears to be price stability. If prices have been stable and people consider that they are reasonable, they are likely to buy. Thus, it appears that the common business policy of maintaining stable prices is based on a correct understanding of consumer psychology(心理学).

From the results of the surveys, the writer of this article _________

A concludes that the saving and spending patterns in Great Britain are better than those in America

B concludes that the consumers always expect prices to remain stable

C concludes that maintaining stable prices is a correct business policy

D does not draw any conclusion

 

观点、态度练习题:

1.

    Like it or not, our advancing technology has made us masters of the earth. We not only dominate all the other animals, but we are reshaping the world’s plant life and even its soil and rocks, its waters and surrounding air.

The author thinks that the results of our technology are __________.

A. slight         B discouraging        C. uncertain         D. insignificant

 

2.

    It is such colleges, thriving but threatened, that I worry about. Low enrollment is not their chief problem. Even with full enrollments, they may go under. Efforts to save them, and preferably to keep them private, are a national necessity. There is no basis for arguing that private schools are bound to be better than public schools. There are plentiful examples to the contrary. Anyone can name state universities and colleges that rank as the finest in the nation and the world. It is now inevitable that public institutions will be dominant, and therefore diversity (多样性) is a national necessity.

In the author's opinion, the way that can save private schools lies in ____.

A. full enrollment   B. raising fees   C. reducing student aid   D. national support

3.

     It has become harder and harder for a teenager to stand up against the popularity wave and to go his or her own way. Industry has firmly carved out a market for teenagers. These days every teenager can learn from the advertisements what a teenager should have and be. This is a great barrier for the teenager who wants to find his or her own path.

The author thinks of advertisements as ____ to teenagers.

A inevitable   B influential   C instructive   D attractive

4. 

    The multi-billion-dollar Western pop music industry is under fire. It is being blamed by the United Nations for the dramatic rise in drug abuse worldwide, "The most worrying development is a culture of drug-friendliness," says the UN's International Narcotics Control Board in a report released last year.

Which of the following statements does the author tend to agree with?

A. The use of drugs for non-medicinal purposes is an acceptable part of a person's lifestyle.

B. The spreading of pop music may cause drug abuse to beyond country boundaries.

C. No efforts have been made to prevent the spreading of drug abuse.

D. Governments have no ability at act against the pro-drug messages of the youth culture.

5.

    As any middle-class parent knows, unpaid work experience can give youngsters a valuable introduction to a secure job. The government has recognized it too, abandoning rules in 2011 that had formerly stopped 16-to 24-years-olds from doing unpaid work while claiming unemployment benefit. But moving from that to forcing them to work without pay in order to collect these benefits has proved a big stepMore than one million young people in Britain are unemployed, the highest number since the mid-1980s. Keen both to cut the welfare bill and to avoid the depressed future wages that may result from early unemployment, the government has impressed future wages that may result from early unemployment, the government has introduced an ambitious program of reform to get youngsters off welfare and into work. A key part of it is ensuring that no one gets benefit from the government for long; ministers are keen to avoid what happened after the early-1980s recession(衰退)when unemployment continued in some parts of the country for a long time after the economy began to improve

According to the author, the British government is trying to______.

A. punish young people if they are not cooperating with it

B. reform the unemployed youngsters

C. the economic slowdown

D. reduce welfare spending

6.

   Worldwide fame burst upon Albert Einstein on November 7, 1919, when British astronomers announced they had found the first confirmation of Einstein's general relativity theory. Einstein had already become known, in scientific circles because of his two astonishing theories: the special theory of relativity, published in 1905 when he was only twenty-six and a minor clerk in the Swiss patent office, and the general theory of relativity, advanced between 1913 and 1915. He was considered so brilliant by other scientists that in 1914 he was invited to join the prestigious Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences and to become head of the research branch at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. He accepted the offer and moved to Berlin.

How does the author seem to feel about Albert Einstein?

A) uninterested            B) critical

  C) impressed              D) overwhelmed

7. 

 I was once shocked to read on the bottom of a sensitive piece of writing about a personal experience: "This work is terrible! There are far too many spelling errors and your writing is illegible (难以辨认的). It may have been a sharp criticism of the pupil's technical abilities in writing, but it was also a sad reflection on the teacher who had omitted to read the essay, which contained some beautiful expressions of the child's deep feelings. The teacher was not wrong to draw attention to the errors, but if his priorities had centred on the child's ideas, an expression of his disappointment with the presentation would have given the pupil more motivation (动力) to seek improvement...

The writer seems to think that the teacher's judgment on that sensitive piece of writing is _______.  

 A) unfair        B) reasonable    C) foolish       D) careless  

 

  

8.

    Am I suggesting that we should return to the pre-industrial mode of production or to nineteenth-century "free enterprise" capitalism? Certainly not. Problems are never solved by returning to a stage which one has already outgrows. I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities—those of love and of reason—are the aims of all social arrangements. Production and consumption should serve only as means to this end, and should be prevented from ruling man.

The author's attitude towards industrialism might best be summarized as one of _____.

A) approval                                 B) dissatisfaction

C) suspicion                             D) tolerance

9.

Engineering students are supposed to be examples of practicality and rationality, but when it comes to my college education I am an idealist and a fool. In high school I wanted to be an electrical engineer and, of course, any sensible student with my aims would have chosen a college with a large engineering department, famous reputation and lots of good labs and research equipment. But that's not what I did.

I chose to study engineering at a small liberal-arts (文科) university that doesn't even offer a major in electrical engineering. Obviously, this was not a practical choice; I came here for more noble reasons. I wanted a broad education that would provide me with flexibility and a value system to guide me in my career. I wanted to open my eyes and expand my vision by interacting with people who weren't studying science or engineering. My parents, teachers and other adults praised me for such a sensible choice. They told me I was wise and mature beyond my 18 years, and I believed them.

I headed off to college sure I was going to have an advantage over those students who went to big engineering “factories” where they didn't care if you had values or were flexible. I was going to be a complete engineer: technical genius and sensitive humanist (人文学者) all in one.

In the eyes of the author, a successful engineering student is expected ______.

A) to have an excellent academic record 

B) to be wise and mature 

C) to be imaginative with a value system to guide him

D) to be a technical genius with a wide vision 

10.

Unless we spend money to spot and prevent asteroids (小行星) now, one might crash into Earth and destroy life as we know it, say some scientists.

Asteroids are bigger versions of the meteoroids (流星) that race across the night sky. Most orbit the sun far from Earth and don't threaten us. But there are also thousands of asteroids whose orbits put them on a collision course with Earth.

Buy $50 million worth of new telescopes right now. Then spend $ 10 million a year for the next 25 years to locate most of the space rocks. By the time we spot a fatal one, the scientists say, we'll have a way to change its course.

Some scientists favor pushing asteroids off course with nuclear weapons. But the cost wouldn't be cheap.

Is it worth it? Two things experts consider when judging any risk are: 1) How likely the event is; and 2) How bad the consequences if the event occurs. Experts think an asteroid big enough to destroy lots of life might strike Earth once every 500,000 years. Sounds pretty rare-but if one did fall, it would be the end of the world. “If we don't take care of these big asteroids, they'll take care of us, says one scientist. “It's that simple.”

The cure, though, might be worse than the disease. Do we really want fleets of nuclear weapons sitting around on Earth? “The world has less to fear from doomsday (毁灭性的) rocks than from a great nuclear fleet set against them,” said a New York Times article.

Which of the following best describes the author's tone in this passage?

A) Optimistic.     B) Critical. C) Objective. D) Arbitrary.

Part 3  综合练习

综合练习题()

Directions: There are four passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.

 

Passage 1

You're busy filling out the application form for a position you really need; let's assume you once actually completed a couple of years of college work or even that you completed your degree. Isn't it tempting to lie just a little, to claim on the form that your diploma represents a Harvard degree? Or that you finished an extra couple of years back at State University?
    More and more people are turning to utter deception like this to land their job or to move ahead in their careers, for personnel officers, like most Americans, value degrees from famous schools. A job applicant may have a good education anyway, but he or she assumes that chances of being hired are better with a diploma from a well-known university. Registrars at most well-known colleges say they deal with deceitful claims like these at the rate of about tone per week.
    Personnel officers do check up on degrees listed on application forms, then. If it turns out that an applicants lying, most colleges are reluctant to accuse the applicant directly. One Ivy League school calls them impostors(骗子); another refers to them as special cases. One well-known West Coast school, in perhaps the most delicate phrase of all, says that these claims are made by no such people.
    To avoid outright(彻底的)lies, some job-seekers claim that they attended or were associated with a college or university. After carefully checking, a personnel officer may discover that attending means being dismissed after one semester. It may be that being associated with a college means that the job-seeker visited his younger brother for a football weekend. One school that keeps records of false claims says that the practice dates back at least to the turn of the century-that's when they began keeping records, anyhow.
    If you don't want to lie or even stretch the truth, there are companies that will sell you a phony(假的)diploma. One company, with offices in New York and on the West Coast, will put your name on a diploma from any number of non-existent colleges. The price begins at around twenty dollars for a diploma from Smoot State University. The prices increase rapidly for a degree from the University of Purdue. As there is no Smoot State and the real school in Indiana properly called Purdue University, the prices seem rather high for one sheet of paper.
1. The main idea of this passage is that     .
Aemployers are checking more closely on applicants now

Blying about college degrees has become a widespread problem

Ccollege degrees can now be purchased easily

Demployers are no longer interested in college degrees
2. According to the passage, special cases refer to cases where     .
Astudents attend a school only part-time

Bstudents never attended a school they listed on their application

Cstudents purchase false degrees from commercial films

Dstudents attended a famous school
3. We can infer from the passage that      .
Aperformance is a better judge of ability that a college degree

Bexperience is the best teacher

Cpast work histories influence personnel officers more than degrees do

Da degree from a famous school enables an applicant to gain advantage over others in job petition
4. This passage implies that      .
Abuying a false degree is not moral

Bpersonnel officers only consider applicants from famous schools

Cmost people lie on applications because they were dismissed from school

Dsociety should be greatly responsible for lying on applications
5. As used in the first line of the second paragraph, the word “utter” means     .
Aaddress   Bthorough  Cultimate   Ddecisive

 

Passage 2

The picnics, speeches, and parades of today’s Labor Day were all part of the first celebration, held in New York City in 1882. Its promoter was an Irish-American labor leader named peter J. McGuire. A carpenter by trade, McGuire had worked since the age of eleven, and in 1882 was president of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners (UBCJ). Approaching the City’s Central Labor Union that summer, he proposed a holiday that would applaud(赞许)”the industrial spirit-the great vital force of every nation,” On September 5 his suggestion bore fruit, as an estimated 10,000 workers, many of them ignoring their bosses’ warnings, left work to march from Union square up Fifth Avenue to 42nd Street. The event gained national attention, and by 1893 thirty states had made Labor Day an annual holiday.

The quick adoption of the scheme may have indicated less about the state lawmakers’ respect for working people than about a fear of risking their anger. In the 1880s the United States was a land sharply divided between the immensely wealthy and the very poor. Henry George was accurate in describing the era as one of “progress and poverty.” In a society in which factory, owners rode in private Pullmans while ten-year-olds slaved in the mines, strong anti-capitalist feeling ran high. Demands for fundamental change were common throughout the labor press. With socialists demanding an end to “wage slavery” and anarchists(无政府主义)singing the praises of the virtues of dynamite(炸药), middle-of-the-roaders like Samuel Gompers and McGuire seemed attractively mild by comparison. One can imagine practical capitalists seeing Labor Day as a bargain: A one-day party certainly cost them less than paying their workers decent wages.

6. Judging from the passage, McGuire was ____________.

 A) a moderate labor leader

 B) an extreme-anarchist in the labor movement

 C) a devoted socialist fighting against exploitation of man by man

 D) a firm anti-capitalist demanding the elimination of wage slavery

7. We can see from the first paragraph that the first Labor Day march _________.

A) immediately won nationwide support

 B) involved workers from 30 states

 C) was opposed by many factory owners

 D) was organized by the UBCJ

8. Which of the following is the key factor in the immediate approval of Labor Day as a national holiday?

 A) The lawmakers’ respect for the workers

 B) The worker’s determination to have a holiday of their own.

 C) The socialists’ demands for thorough reform

 D) The politicians’ fear of the workers’ anger.

9. We lean from the passage that the establishment of Labor Day ____________. 

 A) was accepted by most bosses as a compromise

 B) marked a turning point in the workers’ struggle for more rights

 C) indicated the improvement of the workers’ welfare

 D) signaled the end of “wage slavery”

10. McGuire proposed Labor Day in order to ___________.

 A) draw people’s attention to the striking contrast between the rich and the poor

 B) make prominent the important role of the working class in society

 C) win for the workers the right to shorter working hours

 D) expose the exploitation of the workers by their bosses

 

Passage 3

Many a young person tells me he wants to be a writer. I always encourage such people, but I also explain that there’s big difference between “being a writer” and writing. In most cases these individuals are dreaming of wealth and fame, not the long hours alone at a typewriter. “You’ve got to want to write,” I say to them, “not want to be a writer.”

The reality is that writing is a lonely, private and poor-paying affair. For every writer kissed by fortune there are thousands more whose longing is never rewarded. When I left a 20-year career in the U.S. Coast Guard to become a freelance writer(自由撰稿者), I had no prospects at all. What I did have was a friend who found me my room in a New York apartment building. It didn’t even matter that it was cold and had no bathroom. I immediately bought a used manual type -writer and felt like a genuine writer.

After a year or so, however, I still hadn’t gotten a break and began to doubt myself. It was so hard to sell a story that barely made enough to eat. But I knew I wanted to write. I had dreamed about it for years. I wasn’t going to be one of those people who die wondering, What if? I would keep putting my dream to the test—even though it meant living with uncertainty and fear of failure. This is the Shadowland of hope, and anyone with a dream must learn to live there.

11. The passage is meant to _______.

A) warn young people of the hardships that a successful writer has to experience

B) advise young people to give up their idea of becoming a professional writer

C) show young people it’s unrealistic for a writer to pursue wealth and fame

D) encourage young people to pursue a writing career

12. What can be concluded from the passage?

A) Genuine writers often find their work interesting and rewarding.

B) A writer’s success depends on luck rather than on effort.

C) Famous writers usually live in poverty and isolation.

D) The chances for a writer to become successful are small.

13. Why did the author begin to doubt himself after the first year of his writing career?

A) He wasn’t able to produce a single book.

B) He hadn’t seen a change for the better.

C) He wasn’t able to have a rest for a whole years.

D) He found his dream would never come true.

14. “…People who die wondering, What if?” (Line 3, Para.3) refers to “those _______”.

A) who think too much of the dark side of life

B) who regret giving up their career halfway

C) who think a lot without making a decision

D) who are full of imagination even upon death

15. “Shadowland” in the last sentence refers to _______.

A) the wonderland one often dreams about

B) the bright future that one is looking forward to

C) the state of uncertainty before one’s final goal is reached

D) a world that exists only in one’s imagination

  

Passage 4

 To swim across the English Channel takes at least nine hours. It’s a hard work and it makes you short of breath. To fly over the Channel takes only twenty minutes (as long as you’re not held up at the airport), but it’s an expensive way to travel. You can travel by hovercraft if you don’t mind the noise, and that takes forty minutes. Otherwise you can go by boat, if you remember your sea-sickness ills. All these means of transport have their problems and the weary (不耐烦的)traveler often dreams of being able to drive to France in his own car. “Not possible”, you say. Well wait a minute. People are once again considering the idea of a Channel tunnel or bridge.

   This time, the Greater London Council is looking into the possibility of building a Channel link straight to London. A bridge would cost far more than a tunnel, but you would be able to go by rail or by car on a bridge, whereas a tunnel would provide a rail link only.

   Why is this idea being discussed again? Is Britain becoming more conscious of the need for links with Europe as a result of joining the EEC(欧共体)?Well, perhaps. The main reason, though, is that a tunnel or bridge would reach the twenty square kilometers of London’s disused dockland (船坞地). A link from London to the continent would stimulate trade and re-vitalize (使重新具有活力)the port, and would make London a main trading center in Europe. With a link over the Channel , you could buy your fish and chips in England and be able to eat them in France while they were still warm!

16. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

A. Swimming across the Channel takes less than four hours.

B. The idea of a Channel tunnel or bridge is a very new one.

C. It is considered to be more difficult to swim across the channel than any other means.

D. A tunnel or bridge would only reach as far as the coast.

17. A tunnel would be__________.

A. less expensive to be built than a bridge

B. more expensive to be built than a bridge

C. less expensive to be built than a rail

D. more expensive to be built than a rail

18. If they built a Channel tunnel, you would_______.

A. neither take a train nor go by car

B. either take a train or go by car

C. only take a train

D. only take a bus

19. It can be concluded that many of London’s dockyards are _____________.

A. not used

B. fully used

C. seriously blocked

D. opened again

20. Channel link would________.

A. allow us to by fish and chips in France

B. make the journey from Europe to England dangerous but easier and faster

C. decrease more trade for London’s dockyards

D. make London more prosperous again

  

综合练习题()

 

Passage 1

In these days of technological triumphs, it is well to remind ourselves from time to time that living mechanisms are often incomparably more efficient than their artificial imitations. There is no better illustration of this idea than the sonar (声纳) system of bats. It is billions of times more efficient and more sensitive than the radars and sonars designed by man.

Of course, the bats have had some 50 million years of evolution to refine their sonar. Their physiological mechanisms for echo location, based on all this accumulated experience, therefore deserve our thorough study and analysis.

To appreciate the precision of the bats' echo location, we must first consider the degree of their reliance upon it. Thanks to sonar, an insect - eating bat can get along perfectly well without eyesight. This was brilliantly demonstrated by the Italian naturalist Lazzaro Spallanzani. He caught some bats in a bell tower, blinded them. and released them outdoors. Four of these blind bats were recaptured ,after they had found their ways back to the bell tower, and on examining their stomachs’ contents, Spallanxani found that they had been able to capture and eat flying insects. We know from experiments that bats easily find insects in the dark of night, even when the insects make no sound that can be heard by human ears. A bat will catch hundreds of soft bodied silent flying insects in a single hour. It will even detect and chase pebbles ( 卵石 ) tossed ( 向上扔) into the air.

1. According to the author, the sonar system of bats is an example of the idea that_____.

  A) this is the age of technological triumphs

  B) modern machines are inefficient

  C) living mechanisms are often more efficient than man - made machines

  D) artificial imitations are always less efficient than living mechanisms

2. The author suggests that the sonar system of bats_____.

  A) was at the height of its perfection 50 million years ago

  B) is better than man- .made sonar because it has had 50 million years to be refined

  C) should have been discovered by man many years ago

  D) is the same as it was 50 million years ago

3. Echo location in this article means the_____.

  A) location of echoes

  B) ability to determine where an echo comes from

  C) scientific term for sound waves

  D) ability to locate unseen objects by echoes

4. This article was written to illustrate ________.

  A) the deficiencies of man - made sonar

  B) the dependence of man upon animals

  C) that we are living in a machine age

  D) that the sonar system of bats is remarkable

5. The following is the main point of the article:

  A) A bat will catch hundreds of insects in a single hour

  B)There is a perfection in nature which sometimes can not be matched by man's creative efforts.

  C) The phrase "blind as a bat" is valid.

  D) Sonar and radar systems of man are inefficient.

  

 

Passage 2

  People travel for a lot of reason. Some tourists go to see battlefields or religious shrines. Others are looking for culture, or simply want to have their picture taken in front of famous places. But most European tourists are looking for a sunny beach to lie on.

  Northern Europeans are willing to pay a lot of money and put up with a lot of inconveniences for the sun because they have so little of it. Residents of cities like London, Copenhagen , and Amsterdam spend a lot of their winter in the dark because the days are so short, and much of the rest of the year in the rain. This is the reason the Mediterranean has always attracted them. Every summer, more than 25 million people travel to Mediterranean resort and beaches for their vacation. They all come for the same reason: sun!

  The huge crowds mean lots of money for the economies of Mediterranean countries. Italy’s 30,000 hotels are booked solid every summer. And 13 million people camp out on French beaches, parks and roadsides. Spain’s long sandy coastline attracts more people than anywhere else. 37 million tourists visit yearly, or one tourist for every person living in Spain.

  But there are signs that the area is getting more tourism than it can handle. The Mediterranean is already one of the most polluted seas on earth. And with increased tourism, it’s getting worse. The French can’t figure out what to do with all the garbage left by campers around St. Tropez. And in many places , swimming is dangerous because of pollution.

  None of this, however, is spoiling anyone’s fun. The Mediterranean gets more popular every year with tourists. Obviously, they don’t go there for clean water and solitude. They tolerate traffic jams and seem to like crowded beaches. They don’t even mind the pollution. No matter how dirty the water is, the coastline still looks beautiful. And as long as the sun shines, it’s still better than sitting in the cold rain in Berlin, London, or Oslo.

6. The writer seems to imply that Europeans travel mostly for the reason that__________.

  A. they want to see historic remains or religious spots.

  B. they are interested in different cultural traditions and social customs.

  C. they would like to take pictures in front of famous sites.

  D. they wish to escape from the cold, dark and rainy days back at home.

7. In paragraph 2, cities like London, Copenhagen, and Amsterdam are mentioned __________.

  A. to show that they are not good cities in terms of geography and climate.

  B. to tell us how wealthy their residents are.

  C. to suggest that these cities lack places of historic interest and scenic beauty.

  D. to prove that they have got more tourism than they can handle.

8. According to the passage, which of the following countries attracts more tourists than the others?

  A. Italy

  B. Spain

  C. France

  D. Greece.

9. The latter half of the last sentence in paragraph3, i.e., “ or one tourist for every person living in Spain” means __________.

  A. all the 37 million people living in Spain are tourists.

  B. every year almost as many tourists visit Spain as there are people living in that country.

  C. every person living in Spain has to take care of a tourist.

  D. every Spanish is visited by a tourist every year.

10. According to the passage, which of the following factors might spoil the tourists’ fun at Mediterranean resorts and beaches?

  A. Polluted water.

  B. Crowded buses

  C. Traffic jams.

  D. Rainy weather.

  

Passage 3

Trees are useful to man in three important waysthey provide him with wood and other products; they give him shade; and they help to prevent droughts and floods.

  Unfortunately, in many parts of the world, man has not realized that the third of these services is the most important. In his eagerness to make money from trees, he has cut them down in large numbers, only to find that without them he has lost the best friends he had. And besides, he is usually too careless to plant and look after new trees. So the forests slowly disappear.

   This does not only mean that man will have fewer trees. The results are even more serious: for where there are trees, their roots break up soil---allowing the rain to sink in ---and also bind the soil, thus preventing it from being washed away easily; but where there are no trees, the rain falls on hard ground and flows away, causing floods and carrying away the rich top-soil. When all the top-soil is gone, nothing remains but worthless desert.

   Two thousand years ago a rich and powerful country cut down its trees to build warships , with which to gain itself an empire. It set up the empire but, without its trees, its soil became poor and it grew weak. When the empire fell to pieces, the home country found itself faced with floods and starvation.

11. What is the most important service of trees to man according to the passage?

  A. They help him make money.

  B. They give him wood and other products.

  C. They help him prevent droughts and floods.

  D. They give him shade.

12. Why do forests in many parts of the world slowly disappear?

  A. New trees are not looked after properly.

  B. Many trees have been cut down by man.

  C. Man has not paid enough attention to planting trees.

  D. All of the above.

13. Why did the country mentioned in the passage suffer from floods and starvation?

  A. Because an empire was set up.

  B. Because the empire fell to pieces.

  C. Because it lost all its trees.

  D. Because too much had been spent on wars.

14. Why does land become desert after all trees are cut down?

  A. Because nothing remains on land except floods.

  B. Because there are no longer trees to keep the rain and protect the top-soil.

  C. Because too much rain sinks in and washes away the top-soil.

  D. Because roots of the trees break up the soil.

15. What does the author tell us in this passage?

  A. How trees help prevent droughts and floods.

  B. The relationship between trees and man.

  C. How an empire fell to pieces in ancient times.

  D. A story of trees.

 

Passage 4

  Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage:

   More than 30,000 drivers and front seat passengers are killed or seriously injured each year. At the speed of only 30 miles per hour it is the same as falling from a third-floor windows. Wearing a seat belt saves lives; it reduces your chance of death or serious injury by more than half.

   Therefore drivers or front seat passengers over 14 in most vehicles must wear a seat belt. If you do not, you could be fined up to 50. It will not be up to the drivers to make sure you wear your belt. But it will be the driver’s responsibility to make sure that children under 14 do not ride in the front unless they are wearing a seat belt of some kind.

   However, you do not have to wear a seat belt if you reversing your vehicle; or you are making a local delivery or collection using a special vehicle; or if you have a valid medical certificate which excuses you from wearing it. Make sure these circumstances apply to you before you decide not to wear you seat belt. Remember you may be taken to court for not doing so, and you may be fined if you cannot prove to the court that you have been excused from wearing it.

16. This text is taken from ________.

A) a medical magazine        B) a police report

C) a legal document          D) a government information booklet

17. Wearing a seat belt in a vehicle ________.

A) reduces road accidents by more than half

B) saves lives while driving at a speed up to 30 miles per hour

C) reduces the death rate in traffic accidents

D) saves more than 15,000 lives each year

18. It is the driver’s responsibility to ________.

A) make the front seat passenger wear a seat belt

B) make the front seat children under 14 wear a seat belt

C) stop children riding in the front seat

D) wear a seat belt each time he drives

19. According to the text, which of the following people riding in the front does not have to wear a seat belt?

A) Someone who is backing into a parking space.

B) Someone who is picking up the children from the local school.

C) Someone who is delivering invitation letters.

D) Someone who is under 14.

20. For some people, it may be better ________.

A) to wear a seat belt for health reasons

B) not to wear a seat belt for health reasons

C) to get valid medical certificate before wearing a seat belt

D) to pay a fine rather than wear a seat belt

 

 

 

综合练习题(三)

 

Passage 1

  The human brain contains 10 thousand million cells and each of these may have a thousand connections. Such enormous numbers used to discourage us and cause us to dismiss the possibility of making a machine with human-like ability, but now that we have grown used to moving forward at such a pace we can be less sure. Quite soon, in only 10 or 20 years perhaps, we will be able to assemble a machine as complex as the human brain, and if we can we will. It may then take us a long time to render it intelligent by loading in the right software (软件) or by altering the architecture but that too will happen.

   I think it certain that in decades, not centuries, machines of silicon () will arise first to rival and then exceed their human ancestors. Once they exceed us they will be capable of their own design. In a real sense they will be able to reproduce themselves. Silicon will have ended carbon’s long control. And we will no longer be able to claim ourselves to be the finest intelligence in the known universe.

  As the intelligence of robots increases to match that of humans and as their cost declines through economies of scale we may use them to expand our frontiers, first on earth through their ability to withstand environments, harmful to ourselves. Thus, deserts may bloom and the ocean beds be mined. Further ahead, by a combination of the great wealth this new age will bring and the technology it will provide, the construction of a vast, man-created world in space, home to thousands or millions of people, will be within our power.

1. In what way can we make a machine intelligent?

  A) By making it work in such environments as deserts, oceans or space.

  B) By working hard for 10 or 20 years.

  C) By either properly programming it or changing its structure.

  D) By reproducing it.

2. What does the writer think about machines with human-like ability?

  A) He believes they will be useful to human beings.

  B) He believes that they will control us in the future.

  C) He is not quite sure in what way they may influence us.

  D) He doesn’t consider the construction of such machines possible.

3. The word “carbon” (Line 4, Para. 2) stands for ________.

  A) intelligent robots        B) a chemical element     

  C) an organic substance     D) human beings

4. A robot can be used to expand our frontiers when ________.

  A) its intelligence and cost are beyond question

  B) it is able to bear the rough environment

  C) it is made as complex as the human brain

  D) its architecture is different from that of the present ones

5. It can be inferred from the passage that ________.

  A) after the installation of a great number of cells and connections, robots will be capable of self-reproduction

  B) with the rapid development of technology, people have come to realize the possibility of making a machine with human-like ability

  C) once we make a machine as complex as the human brain, it will posses intelligence

  D) robots will have control of the vast, man-made world in space

  

Passage 2

  “... We are not about to enter the Information Age but instead are rather well into it.” Present predictions are that by 1990, about thirty million jobs in the United States, or about thirty percent of the job market, will be computer-related. In 1980, only twenty-one percent of all United States high schools owned one or more computers for student use. In the fall of 1985, a new survey revealed that half of United States secondary schools have fifteen or more computers for student use. And now educational experts, administrators, and even the general public are demanding that all students become “computer literate (慢点).” “By the year 2000 knowledge of computers will be necessary in over eighty percent of all occupations. Soon those people not educated in computer use will be compared to those who are print illiterate today.”

  What is “computer literacy”? The term itself seems to imply soon extent of “knowing” about computers, but knowing what. The current opinion seems to be that this should include a general knowledge of what computers are, plus a little of their history and something of how they operate.

  Therefore, it is vital that educators everywhere take a careful look not only at what is being done, but also at what should be done in the field of computer education. Today most adults are capable of utilizing a motor vehicle without the slightest knowledge of how the internal-combustion engine works. We effectively use all types of electrical equipment without being able to tell their histories or to explain how they work. Business people for years have made good use of typewriters and adding machines, yet few have ever known how to repair them. Why, then, attempt to teach computers by teaching how or why they work?

  Rather, we first must concentrate on teaching the effective use of the computer as the tool is.

  “Knowing how to use a computer is what’s going to be important, we don’t talk about ‘automobile literacy. ‘ We just get in our cars and drive them.”

6. In 1990, the number of jobs having nothing to do with computers in the United States will be reduced to ________.

  A) 79 million      B) 30 million     C) 70 million     D) 100 million

7. The expression “Print illiterate” (Para. 1, Line 16) refers to ________.

  A) one who has never learnt printing  B) one who is not computer literate

  C) one who has never learnt to read   D) one who is not able to use a typewriter

8. The first paragraph is mainly about ________.

  A) recent predictions of computer-related jobs

  B) the wide use of computers in schools

  C) the urgency of computer education

  D) public interest in computers

9.According to the author, the effective way to spread the use of computers is to teach ____.

  A) what computers are              B) how to use computers

  C) where computers can be used      D) how computers work

10. Which of the following statements is FALSE?

  A) What to teach about computers should be reconsidered.

  B) Those who are not educated in computer use will find it difficult to get a job.

  C) Human society has already entered the Information Age.

  D) Those who want to use computers should know how computers operate.

  

Passage 3

     American society is not nap (午睡)friendly. In fact, says David Dinges, a sleep specialist at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Theres even a prohibition against admitting we need sleep. Nobody wants to be caught napping or found asleep at work. To quote proverb: Some sleep five hours, nature requires seven, laziness nine and wickedness eleven. 

    Wrong. The way not to fall asleep at work is to take naps when you need them. We have to totally change our attitude toward napping, says Dr. William Dement of Stanford University, the godfather of sleep research.

    Last year a national commission led by Dement identified an American sleep debt which one member said was as important as the national debt, the commission was concerned about the dangers of sleepiness: people causing industrial accidents or falling asleep while driving. This may be why we have a new sleep policy in the White House. According to recent reports, president Clinton is trying to take a half-hour snooze (打瞌睡)every afternoon.

    About 60 percent of American adults nap when given the opportunity. We seem to have a midafternoon quiet phase also called a secondary sleep gate. Sleeping 15 minutes to two hours in the early afternoon can reduce stress and make us refreshed. Clearly, we were born to nap.

We Superstars of Snooze dont nap to replace lost shut-eye or to prepare for a night shift. Rather, we snack on sleep, whenever, wherever and at whatever time we feel like it. I myself have napped in buses, cars, planes and on boats; on floors and beds; and in libraries, offices and museums.

 

11. It is commonly accepted in American society that too much sleep is _______.

A) unreasonable            C) harmful

B) criminal                D) costly

12. The research done by the Dement commission shows that Americans ________.

A) dont like to take naps

B) are terribly worried about their national debt

C) sleep less than is good for them

D) have caused many industrial and traffic accidents

13. The purpose of this article is to ___________.

A) warn us of the wickedness of napping

B) explain the danger of sleepiness

C) discuss the side effects of napping

D) convince the reader of the necessity of napping

14. The American sleep debt (Line 1, Para.3) is the result of _________.

A) the traditional misconception the Americans have about sleep

B) the new sleep policy of the Clinton Administration

C) the rapid development of American industry

D) the Americans worry about the danger of sleepiness

15. The second sentence of the last paragraph tells us that it is __________.

A) preferable to have a sound sleep before a night shift

B) good practice to eat something light before we go to bed

C) essential to make up for cost sleep

D) natural to take a nap whenever we feel the need for it

 

 

Passage 4

In 1944 a 22-year-old Army medic(卫生兵) was answering a battle-field cry for help when fragments of an exploding German shell tore into him. "Gee doc, I feel like both my arms were blown off, "George Lott told his battalion’s surgeon as he staffered into a first-aid station (急救站) near the front in northeastern France. It was the beginning of a painful 5000 mile journey through three hospitals as doctor tried to save the medic’s life.

After five operations and two and a half years in Army hospitals, Lott, a righty, regained use of his left arm, but his right was painfully paralyzed. "I begged the doctors to cut off my arm, "he recalls. They did.

An orphan since he was two, with a third grade education, Lott has lived on his pension and Social Security(社会保险金) for the past 40 years. In 1962 he bought a house in Albany, N. Y., not far from  the Adirondack Mountains where he hunts and fished. He still has the Purple Heart awarded him after he was wounded, although he has had a difficult time keeping it. His girlfriends, explains the bachelor, have wanted to wear it.

"Sometimes I still dream about the guys I held in my arms that were dying, "says Lott, "I’m proud that I fought for my country, but I’m still here, drinking beer. The guys who didn’t come back are the real heroes."

16.George Lott got wounded when he was

  A)fighting shoulder-to-shoulder with soldiers of his battalion.

  B)fighting with French soldiers.

  C)in a battlefield crying for help.

  D)running toward a wounded soldier who was crying for help.

17.The word "righty" in the second paragraph most probably means

  A)a person who has always been correct in conduct.

  B)a person who has done the right thing.

  C)a person who uses his right hand more readily than his left hand.

  D)a person who has courage.

18.From the passage we can infer that

  A)Lott’s recovery was long and painful.

  B)he lost both his arms.

  C)he never got a job after he was wounded.

  D)both a and c.

19.Which of the following is true?

  A)Lott didn’t think much of his wartime service.

  B)Lott and his girlfriend are proud that he fought for his country.

  C)Lott feels ashamed that he is still drinking beer.

  D)Lott lost his Purple Heart.

20.Lott thinks that real heroes are

  A)those dying people whom he held in his arms.

  B)those who died for their country.

  C)those who chose not to come back to their country.

  D)those who fought for their country.

  D)when scientists were able to acquire an understanding of reality by reasoning

 

 

综合测试题(四)

Passage 1

    The advantages and disadvantages of a large population have long been a subject of discussion among economists. It has been argued that the supply of good land is limited. To feed a large population, inferior land must be cultivated and the good land worked intensively. Thus, each person produces less and this means a lower average income than could be obtained with a smaller population. Other economists have argued that a large population gives more scope for specialization and the development of facilities such as ports, roads and railways, which are not likely to be built unless there is a big demand to justify them.

One of the difficulties in carrying out a world-wide birth control program lies in the fact that official attitudes to population growth vary from country to country depending on the level of industrial development and the availability of food and raw materials. In the developing country where a vastly expanded population is pressing hard upon the limits of food, space and natural resources, it will be the first concern of government to place a limit on the birthrate, whatever the consequences may be. In  the highly industrialized society the problem may be more complex. A decreasing birthrate may lead to unemployment because it results in a declining market for manufactured good. When the pressure of population on housing declines, prices also decline and the building industry is weakened. Faced with considerations such as these, the government of a developed country may well prefer to see a slowly increasing population, rather than one which is stable or in decline.

1.A small population may mean _____ .

  A)higher productivity, but a lower average income

  B)lower productivity, but a higher average income

  C)lower productivity, and a lower average income

  D)higher productivity, and a higher average income

2.According the the passage, a large population will provide a chance for developing _____ .

  A)agriculture    B)transport system   C)industry         D)national economy

3.In a developed country, people will perhaps go out of work if the birthrate _____ .

  A)goes up       B)is decreasing     C)remains stable    D)is out of control

4.According to the passage slowly rising birthrate perhaps is good for _____ .

  A)a developing nation

  B)a developed nation

  C)every nation with a big population

  D)every nation with a small nation

5.It is no easy job to carry out a general plan for birth control throughout the world because _____ .

 A)there too many underdeveloped countries in the world

 B)underdeveloped countries have low level of industrial development

 C)different governments have different views of the question

 D)even developed countries may have complex problems

 

Passage 2

Washington Irving was America’s first man of letters to be known internationally. His works were received enthusiastically both in England and in the United States. He was, in fact, one of the most  successful writers of his time in either country, delighting a large general public and at the same time winning the admiration of fellow writers like Scott in Britain and Poe and Tarwthorne in the United  States. The respect in which he was held was partly owing to the man himself, with his warm friendliness, his good sense, his politeness, his gay spirits, his artistic integrity, his love of both the old World and the New Thackery described Irving as a "gentleman, who, though himself born in no very high sphere, was most finished, polished, witty; socially the equal of the most refined Europeans". In England he was granted an honorary degree from Oxford --- an unusual honor for a citizen of a young, uncultured nation ---and be received the medal of the Royal Society of Literature; America made him ambassador to Spain. Irving’s background provides little to explain his literary achievements. A gifted but delicate child, he had little schooling. He studied law, but without zeal, and never did practice seriously. He was immune to his strict Presbyterian home environment, frequenting both social gatherings and the theater.

6.What is the most proper comment on Irving?

  A)His works were very popular in England and the United States.

  B)He was respected by many fellow writers.

  C)His works were of popularity and high quality.

  D)He is a gentleman.

7.According to Thachery’s description, which of the following statements is NOT TRUE?

  A)Irving tried to show elegance in society.

  B)Irving’s parents were not aristocratic.

  C)Irving’s social grace were unusual.

  D)Irving was inferior to Europeans of refinement.

8.Why is it unusual that Irving was granted an honorary degree from Oxford?

  A)Because his degree was honorary, rather than earned.

  B)Because he was not so successful as his fellow writers.

  C)Because he was from America which was a country with young history and less culture.

  D)Because Oxford was a famous university in England.

9.What is true about Irving’s background?

  A)His background had provided opportunity for his literary a achievement.

  B)He spent very little time working as a lawyer.

  C)As a gifted child, he had received good education.

  D)His religious belief helped him a lot.

10.The tone of the author can be said to be _____.

  A)serious        B)mild         C)friendly       D)appreciative

 

Passage 3

    There are various way in which individual economic units can interact with one another. Three basic ways may be described as the market system, the administered system, and the traditional system. In a market system individual economic units are free to interact each other the the marketplace. It is possible to buy commodities from other economic units or sell commodities to them. In a market, transactions may take place via barter or money exchange. In a barter economy, real goods such as automobiles, shoes, and pizzas are traded against each other. Obviously, finding somebody who wants to trade my old car in exchange for a sailboat may not always be an easy task. Hence, the  introduction of money as a medium of exchange eases transactions considerably. In the modern market economy, goods and services are bought or sold for money.

An alternative to the market system is administrative control by some agency over all transactions. This agency will issue edicts or commands as to how much of each kind of goods and services should be produced, exchanged, and consumed by each economic unit. Central planning may be one way of administering such an economy. The central plan. drawn up by government, shows amounts of each  commodity produced by the various firms and allocated to different households for consumption. This is an example or complete planning of production, consumption, and exchange for the whole economy.

In a traditional society, production and consumption patterns are governed by tradition: every person’s place with--in the economic system is fixed by parentage ,religion, and custom. Transactions take place on the basis of tradition, too. People belonging to a certain group of caste may have an obligation to care for other persons, provide them with food and shelter, care for their health, and provide for their education. Clearly, in a system where every decision is made on the basis of tradition alone, progress may be difficult to achieve, a stagnant society may result.

11.What is the main purpose of the passage?

  A)To outline contrasting types of economic system

  B)To explain the science of economics

  C)To argue for the superiority of one economic system

  D)To compare barter and money--exchange markets

12.In the second paragraph, the word "real" in "real goods" could best be replaced by which of the following? 

  A)high quality    B)concrete    C)utter    D)authentic

13.According to the passage, a barter economy can lead to _____.

  A)rapid speed of transactions        B)misunderstandings

  C)inflation                       D)difficulty for the traders

14.According to the passage, who has the greatest degree of control in an administered system?

  A)Individual households

  B)Small businesses

  C)Major corporations

  D)The government

15.Which of the following is not mentioned by the author as a criterion for determining a person’s place in a traditional society?

  A)Family background           B)Age

  C)Religious belief              D)Custom

  

Passage 4

    About six years ago I was eating lunch in a restaurant in New York City when a woman and a young boy sat down at the next table, I couldn’t help overhearing parts of their conversation. At one point the woman asked: "So, how have you been?" And the boy—who could not have been more than seven or eight years old —replied. "Frankly, I've been feeling a little depressed lately.''

    This incident stuck in my mind because it confirmed my growing belief that children are changing. As far as I can remember, my friends and I didn’t find out we were “depressed” until we were in high school.

    The evidence of a change in children has increased steadily in recent years. Children don’t seem childlike anymore. Children speak more like adults, dress more like adults and behave more like adults than they used to.

    Whether this is good or bad is difficult to say, but it certainly is different. Childhood as it once was no longer exists, Why?

    Human development is based not only on innate (天生的) biological states, but also on patterns of access to social knowledge. Movement from one social rote to another usually involves learning the secrets of the new status. Children have always been taught adult secrets, but slowly and in stages: traditionally, we tell sixth graders things we keep hidden from fifth graders.

    In the last 30 years. however, a secret-revelation (揭示) machine has been installed in 98 percent of American homes. It is called television, Television passes information, and indiscriminately (不加区分地), to all viewers alike, be they children or adults. Unable to resist the temptation, many children turn their attention from printed texts to the less challenging, more vivid moving pictures.

    Communication through print, as a matter of fact, allows for a great deal of control over the social information to which children have access. Reading and writing involve a complex code of symbols that must be memorized and practices. Children must read simple books before they can read complex materials.

 

16. According to the author, feeling depressed is ________________________.

A) a sure sign of a psychological problem in a child

B) something hardly to be expected in a young child

C) an inevitable has of children's mental development

D) a mental scale present in all humans, including children

17. Traditionally, a child is supposed to learn about the adult world ______________.

A) through contact with society  

B) gradually and under guidance

C) naturally and by biological instinct

D)through exposure to social information

18. The phenomenon that today’s children seem adultlike is attributed by the author to _________________________.

A) the widespread influence of television

B) the poor arrangement of teaching content

C) the fast pace of human intellectual development

D) the constantly rising standard of living

19. Why is the author in favor of communication through print for children?

A) It enables children to gain more social information.

B) It develops children's interest in reading and writing.

C) It helps children to memorize and practice more.

D) It can control what children are to learn.

20. What does the author think of the change in today’s children?

A) He feels amused by chair premature behavior.

B) He thinks it is a phenomenon worthy of note.

C) He considers it a positive development.

D) He seems to be upset about it.

 

综合测试题(五)

Passage 1

   Being sociable looks like a good way to add years to your life. Relationships with family, friends, neighbors, even pets, will all do the trick, but the biggest longevity (长寿) boost seems to come from marriage or an equivalent relationship. The effect was first noted in 1858 by William Farr, who wrote that widows and widowers (鳏夫) were at a much higher risk of dying than their married peers. Studies since then suggest that marriage could add as much as seven years to a man’s life and two to a woman’s. The effect holds for all causes of death, whether illness, accident or self-harm.

  Even if the odds are stacked against you, marriage can more than compensate. Linda Waite of the University of Chicago has found that a married older man with heart disease can expect to live nearly four years longer than an unmarried man with a healthy heart. Likewise, a married man who smokes more than a pack a day is likely to live as long as a divorced man who doesn’t smoke. There’s a flip side, however, as partners are more likely to become ill or die in the couple of years following their spouse’s death, and caring for a spouse with mental disorder can leave you with some of the same severe problems. Even so, the odds favor marriage. In a 30-year study of more than 10,000 people, Nicholas Christakis of Harvard Medical School describes how all kinds of social networks have similar effects.

   So how does it work? The effects are complex, affected by socio-economic factors, health-service provision, emotional support and other more physiological (生理的) mechanisms. For example, social contact can boost development of the brain and immune system, leading to better health and less chance of depression later in life. People in supportive relationships may handle stress better. Then there are the psychological benefits of a supportive partner.

A life partner, children and good friends are all recommended if you aim to live to 100. The ultimate social network is still being mapped out, but Christakis says: “People are interconnected, so their health is interconnected.”

 

1.William Farr’s study and other studies show that _________.

A. social life provides an effective cure for illness

B. being sociable helps improve one’s quality of life

C. women benefit more than men from marriage

D. marriage contributes a great deal to longevity

2. Linda Waite’s studies support the idea that _________.

A. older men should quit smoking to stay healthy

B. marriage can help make up for ill health

C. the married are happier than the unmarried

D. unmarried people are likely to suffer in later life

3.It can be inferred from the context that the “flip side” (Line 5, Para. 2) refers to _________.

A. the disadvantages of being married

B. the emotional problems arising from marriage

C. the responsibility of taking care of one’s family

D. the consequence of a broken marriage

4.What does the author say about social networks?

A. They have effects similar to those of a marriage.

B. They help develop people’s community spirit.

C. They provide timely support for those in need.

D. They help relieve people of their life’s burdens.

5.What can be inferred from the last paragraph?

A. It’s important that we develop a social network when young.

B. To stay healthy, one should have a proper social network.

C. Getting a divorce means risking a reduced  life span.

D. We should share our social networks with each other.

 

 

Passage 2

Most people would agree that, although our age exceeds all previous ages in knowledge, there has been no corresponding increase in wisdom. But agreement ceases as soon as we attempt to define “wisdom” and consider means of promoting it.

There are several factors that contribute to wisdom. Of there I should put first a sense of proportion: the capacity to take account of all the important factors in a problem and to attach to each its due weight. This has become more difficult than it used to be owing to the extent and complexity of the special knowledge required of various kinds of technicians. Suppose, for Example , that you are engaged in research in scientific medicine. The work is difficult and is likely to absorb the whole of your mind. You have not time to consider the effect which your discoveries or inventions may have outside the field of medicine. You succeed (let us say), as modern medicine has succeeded, in enormously lowering the infant death-rate, not only in Europe and America, but also in Asia and Africa. This has the entirely unintended result of making the food supply inadequate and lowering the standard of life in the parts of the world that have the greatest populations. To take an even more dramatic Example , which is in everybody's mind at the present time: you study the makeup of the atom from a disinterested (无利害关系的) desire for knowledge, and by chance place in the hands of a powerful mad man the means of destroying the human race.

Therefore, with every increase of knowledge and skill, wisdom becomes more necessary, for every such increase augments (增强) our capacity for realizing our purposes, and therefore augments our capacity for evil, if our purposes are unwise.

1. Disagreement arises when people try to decide ________.

A) how much more wisdom we have now than before

B) what wisdom is and how to develop it

C) if there is a great increase of wisdom in our age

D) whether wisdom can be developed or not

2. According to the author, “wisdom” is the ability to ________.

A) carefully consider the bad effects of any kind of research work   

B) give each important problem some careful consideration

C) acquire a great deal of complex and special knowledge  

D) give suitable consideration to all the possible elements in a problem3. Lowering the infant death-rate may ________.

A) prove to be helpful everywhere in the world  

B) give rise to an increase in population in Europe

C) cause food shortages in Asia and Africa  

D) raise the living standard of the people in Africa

4. The author uses the Example s in the passage to illustrate his point that ________.

A) it's extremely difficult to consider all the important elements in a problem

B) success in medical research has its negative effects  

C) scientists may unknowingly cause destruction to the human race

D) it's unwise to be totally absorbed in research in scientific medicine

5. What is the main idea of the passage?

A) It is unwise to place the results of scientific research in the hands of a powerful mad man.

B) The more knowledge one has, the wiser one becomes.

C) Any increase of knowledge could lead to disastrous results without the guidance of wisdom.

D) Wisdom increases in proportion to one's age.

 

Passage 3

When your parents advise you to "get an education" in order to raise your income, they tell you only half the truth. What they really mean is to get just enough education to provide manpower for your society, but not so much that you prove an embarrassment to your society.

Get a high school diploma, at least. Without that, you will be occupationally dead unless your name happens to be George Bernard Shaw or Thomas Alva Edison, and you can successfully dropout in grade school.

Get a college degree, if possible. With a B.A., you are on the launching pad. But now you have to start to put on the brakes. If you go for a master's degree, make sure it is an M.B.A., and is famous law of diminishing  returns begins to take effect.

Do you know, for instance, that long- haul truck drivers earn more per year than full professors? Yes, the average 1977 salary for those truckers was $24000. While the full professors managed to earn just $23030.

A Ph.D. is the highest degree you can get. Except for a few specialized fields such as physics or chemistry where the degree can quickly be turned to industrial or commercial purposes, if you pursue such a degree in any other field, you will face a dim future. There are more Ph.D.s unemployed or underemployed in this country than any other part of the world.

If you become a doctor of philosophy in English or history or anthropology or political science or languages or-worst of all-in philosophy, you run the risk of becoming overeducated for our national demands. Not for our needs, mind  you, but for our demands.

Thousands of Ph.D.s are selling shoes, driving cars, waiting on table, and endlessly filling out applications month after month. They may also take a job in some high school or backwater college that pays much less than the janitor earns.

You can equate the level of income with the level of education only so far. Far enough, that is, to make you useful to the gross national product, but not  so far that nobody can turn much of a profit on you.

11.According to the writer, what the society expects of education is to turn out people who _____.

  A)will not be a disgrace to society

  B)will become loyal citizens

  C)can take care of themselves

  D)can meet the nation's demands as a source of manpower

12.Many Ph.D.s are out of job because _____.

  A)they are improperly educated

  B)they are of little commercial value to their society

  C)there are fewer jobs in high schools

  D)they prefer easier jobs that make more money

13.The nation is only interested in people _____.

  A)with diplomas

  B)who specialize in physics and chemistry

  C)who are valuable to the gross national product

  D)both A and C

 14.Which of the following is not true?

  A)Bernard Shaw didn't finish high schools, nor did Edison.

  B)One must think carefully before pursuing a master degree.

  C)The higher your education level, the more money you will earn.

  D)If you are too well-educated, you'll be overeducated for society's demands.

15The writer sees education as _____.

  A)a means of providing job security and financial security and a means of meeting a country's demands for technical workers

  B)a way to broaden one's horizons

  C)more important than finding a job

  D)an opportunity that everyone should have

 

Passage 4

The food we eat seems to have profound effects on our health. Although science has made enormous steps in making food more fit to eat, it has, at the same time, made many foods unfit to eat. Some research has shown that perhaps eighty percent of all human illnesses are related to diet and forty percent of cancer is related to the diet as well, especially cancer of the colon. Difficult cultures are some prone to contract certain illnesses because of the food that is characteristic in these cultures. That food is related to illness is not a new discovery. In 1945,government researchers realized that nitrates and nitrites, commonly used to preserve color in meats, and other food additives, caused cancer. Yet, these carcinogenic additives remain in our food, and it becomes more difficult all the time to know which things on the packaging labels of processed food are helpful or harmful. The additives which we eat are not all so direct. Farmers often give penicillin to beef and poultry and because of this, penicillin has been found in the milk of treated cows. Sometimes similar drugs are administered(given) to animals not for medicinal purposes, but for financial reasons. The farmers are simply trying to fatten the animals in order to obtain a higher price on the market. Although the Food and Drug Administration has tried repeatedly to control these procedures, the practices continue.

16.How has science done a disservice to man mind?_____.

  A)Because of science, disease caused by contaminated food has been virtually done away with

  B)It has caused a lack of information, concerning the value of food

  C)As a result of scientific intervention, some potentially harmful substances have been added to our food

  D)The scientists have preserved the color of meats, but not of vegetables

17.What are nitrates used for?_____.

  A)They preserve flavor in packaged foods

  B)They preserve the color of meats

  C)They are the objects of research

  D)They cause the animals to become fatter

18.What does FDA mean as an organization?_____.

  A)Food Direct Additives

  B)Final Difficult Analysis

  C)Food and Drug Administration

  D)Federal Dairy Additives

19.The word “carcinogenic” means most nearly the same as _____.

  A) trouble-making

  B) color-retaining

  C) money-making

  D) cancer-causing

20.Which of the following statements is not true?_____.

  A)Drugs are always given to animals for medical reasons

  B)Some of the additives in our food are added to the food itself and some are given to the living animals

  C)Researchers have known about the potential hazards of food additives for over thirty-five years

  D)Food may cause forty percent of cancer in the world

 

题型二  篇章阅读理解之  七选五

 

Part 1  考纲解析

   本部分采用一篇长度为300词左右的文章,文中有5个空格,每个空格为一题,要求考生根据文章的意思从所提供的7个选项中选出最合适的5个,分别填入空格处,其余2项为多余选项。与传统的阅读理解题型不同,这种类型的阅读理解注重考察学生对篇章整体意思的理解,把握文章的思路以及叙事顺序是关键。题目可以分为三类:一,段首选择、二,段内选择、三,段末选择。无论哪种选择首先都要确定选项与空格处前后内容的关联性,其次再根据逻辑顺序也就是上面所提到的文章思路和叙事顺序做决定。

 

Part 2  例题详解

Passage 1

Do you find getting up in the morning so difficult that it’s painful? This might be called laziness, but Dr. Kleitman has a new explanation. He has proved that everyone has a daily energy cycle.

        1        . That’s true. The time of day when you feel most energetic is when your cycle of body temperature is at its peak. For some people the peak comes during the afternoon. For others it comes in the afternoon or evening. No one has discovered why this is so, but it leads to such familiar monologues (自言自语) as:

        2         .The possible explanation to the trouble is that John is at his temperature-and-energy peak in the evening. Much family quarreling ends when husbands and wives realize what these energy cycles mean, and which cycle each member of the family has. 3        .Habit can help, Dr. Kleitman believes. Maybe you’re sleepy in the evening but feel you must stay up late anyway. Counteract (对抗) your cycle to some extent by habitually staying up later than you want to. If our energy is low in the morning but you have an important job to do early in the day, rise before your usual hour.         4        .

Get off to a slow start which saves your energy. Get up with a leisurely yawn and stretch. 5       . Avoid the troublesome search for clean clothes by laying them out the night before. Whenever possible, do routine work in the afternoon and save tasks requiring more energy or concentration for your sharper hours.

 

A. you would say that you’re tired

B. “Get up, John! You’ll be late for work again!”

C. Try to change your energy cycle, and you can make your life fit it better.

D. This won’t change your cycle, but you’ll get up steam (鼓起干劲) and work better at your low

point

E. Sit on the edge of the bed a minute before putting your feet on the floor.

F. During the hours when you labor through your work you may say that you’re “hot”

G. You can’t change your energy cycle, but you can learn to make your life fit it better.

 

Passage 2

Reading is thought to be a kind of conversation between the reader and the text. The reader puts questions, as it were, to the text and gets answers. In the light of these he puts further questions, and so on.

For most of the time this “conversation” goes on below the level of consciousness.     1      . This is usually when we are running into difficulties, when mismatch is occurring between expectations and meaning. When successful matching is being experienced, our questioning of the text continues at the unconscious level.

        2        . Some stay very close to the words on the page; others take off imaginatively from the words, interpreting, criticizing, analyzing and examining. The former represents a kind of comprehension which is written in the text. The latter represents higher levels of comprehension.       3       .

There is another conversation which from our point of view is equally important, and that is to do not with what is read but with how it is read. We call this a “process” conversation as opposed to a “content” conversation.       4       . If we are an advanced reader our ability to hold a process conversation with a text is usually pretty well developed.      5        . It is precisely this kind of conversation that is of importance when we are seeking to develop our reading to meet the new demands being placed upon us by studying at a higher level.

 

A. Different people converse with the text differently.

B. It is concerned not with meaning but with the strategies (策略) we employ in reading.

C. At times, however, we become aware of it.

D. Not so our ability to hold a content conversation.

E. The balance between these is important, especially for advanced readers.

F.  Knowing what you are reading is very important.

G. The ability to hold a content conversation is more important than the ability to hold a process    

   conversation.     

 

Passage 3

Either out of confusion or discomfort we sometimes express our feelings in an unclear way. (1)________________________________. In the same way, with a little thought you can probably describe very briefly any reason you have for feeling a certain way.

(2)___________________________________. Of course, not all feelings are strong ones. We do feel degree of sadness and joy, for example, but some communicators have a tendency to downplay almost every feeling. Do you?

A third danger to avoid is expressing feelings in an indirect or coded manner. This happens most often when the sender is uncomfortable about showing his or her feeling in question. Some codes are verbal ones, as when the sender hints more or less subtly at the message. (3)__________________________________.Such a message is so indirect that chances are small that your feelings will be recognized. (4)________________________________________.

 Finally, you can express yourself clearly by making sure that both you and your partner understand that your feeling is centered in a specific set of environments rather than being indicative of the whole relationship. (5)________________________________.

(A)  For this reason, people who send coded messages stand less of a chance of having their feeling understood and their need met.

(B)  For example, an indirect way to say"I'm feeling lonely"might be"I guess there isn't much happening this weekend, so if you're not busy, why don't you drop by?"

(C)  Effective communication is an essential component of professional success, a stable family life and personal happiness. The ability to be certain is a major part of communication.
(D)  One key to making your feelings clear is to realize that you most often can shorten them in a few words.

(E)  Your relationship with a listener can be compared to any other relationship: if there is no trust, you will not be able to communicate effectively.

(F)  Instead of saying"I hate you",say"I hate you when you don't keep your promises". Rather than"I'm bored with you", say"I'm bored when you talk about your money."

(G)  In addition to avoiding too long expressions, a second way to prevent confusion is to avoid downplaying your feelings by saying  I"m a little unhappy or Im pretty excited”.

 

 

   

Part 3  综合练习

Passage 1

Hollywood movies are regularly filled with sex and violence. They can be exciting films but sometimes all you want is a little light-hearted entertainment.

Have you heard of Bollywood? All singing, all dancing and unrealistic, it is the perfect alternative to normal Hollywood movies. Bollywood is the Indian film industry, based in Mumbai, formerly known as Bombay.      1       .Yet Bollywood is the largest producer of films in the world. This year the Indian Filmgare Awards, Bollywood's Oscars, turn 50 years old.

The typical Bollywood movie usually has the following ingredients: a cup of romance, a tea-spoon of comedy, a dash of international sight-seeing, served with a huge slice of singing and dancing. There will also be one brave hero, one beautiful heroine and one baddie.   2    . Bollywood films are full of ideal things and free of daily worries.      3       .The actors change clothes and locations within a single song. But the audience don't mind. To Indian movie lovers, especially the poor, such films are a gateway to heaven and the stars are their gods. The films take them to a magical world away from their everyday troubles. The films tell them the impossible is possible and that true love conquers all.

      4       .Behind the beautiful scenes, Bollywood still emphasizes traditional family values. In most films, if two lovers want to break an arranged marriage, they can't just run away. They must win over their parents.

Bollywood is a decent refreshing replacement for those over-stimulating Hollywood films.       5         . They will take you to a brighter, cheerier and more colorful world, where it's still cool to dance around a tree and sing a love song.

ABollywood has gradually won its reputation on the world stage.

BThere is never any mention of politics, poverty or war.

CMost Chinese school kids have probably never seen an Indian film.

DBollywood films are mostly comic romances with light-hearted incidental music.

E.  Bollywood pays great attention to traditional values. 

FThe result is a fun-filled musical.

GSo if you're tired of all that Hollywood actions, check out the following Bollywood films.

 

Passage 2

The Internet has opened up a whole new online world for us to meet, chat and go where we’ve never been before.

But just as in face to face communication, there are some rules of behavior that should be followed when on line.     1    .Imagine how you’d feel if you were in the other person’s shoes.

For anything you’re about to send: ask yourself, “Would I say this to the person’s face?” If the answer is no, rewrite and reread.       2       .

If someone in the chat room is rude to you, your instinct (本能) is to fire back in the same manner. But try not to do so.            . If it was caused by a disagreement with another member, try to fix the situation by politely discussing it. Remember to respect the beliefs and opinions of others in the chat room.

     4       . Offer advice when asked by newcomers, as they may not be sure what to do or how to communicate. When someone makes a mistake, whether it’s a stupid question or an unnecessarily long answer, be kind about it. If it’s a small mistake, you may not need to say anything. Even if you feel strongly about it, think twice before saying anything. Having good manners yourself doesn’t give you license to correct everyone else.             . At the same time, if you find you are wrong, be sure to correct yourself and apologize to those that you have offended.

It is not polite to ask others personal questions such as their age, sex and marital status. Unless you know the person very well, and you are both comfortable with sharing personal information, don’t ask such questions.

A. It’s natural that there some people who speak rudely or make mistakes online.

B. Repeat the process till you feel sure that you’d feel comfortable saying the words to the person’s face.

C. Everyone was new to the network once.

D. The basic rule is simple: treat others in the same way you would want to be treated.

E. When you send short messages to a person online, you must say something beautiful to hear.

F. You should either ignore the person, or use your chat software to block their messages.

G. If you do decide to tell someone about a mistake, point it out politely.

 

Passage 3

Before going outside in the morning, many of us check a window thermometer(温度计)for the temperature. This helps us decide what to wear. _____1____. We want our food to be a certain coldness in the refrigerator. We want it a certain hotness in the oven. If we don’t feel well, we use a thermometer to see if we have a fever. We keep our rooms a certain warmth in the winter and a certain coolness in the summer.

Not all the thermometers use the same system to measure temperature. We use a system called the Fahrenheit scale. But most other countries use the Centigrade scale.

Both systems use the freezing and boiling points of water as their guide._____2_____ .

The most common kind of thermometer is made with mercury(水银)inside a clear glass tube. As mercury (or any other liquid ) becomes hot, it expands. As it gets colder, it contracts(收缩). That is why on hot days the mercury line is high in the glass tube.      3       .

First. Take a clear glass juice bottle that has a cap ; fill the bottle with coloured water. Tap a hole in the center of the cap using a hammer and thick nail. Put the cap on the jar. Then stick a plastic straw(吸管) through the nail hole.

      4        .

Finally. Place a white card on the outside of the bottle and behind the straw. Now you can see the water lever easily.

          5         .

As the temperature goes down, the water will contract, and the lever in the straw will come down. Perhaps you will want to keep a record of the water lever in the straw each morning for a week.

      AWe use and depend on thermometers to measure the temperature of many other things

in our daily lives.

      BThermometers measure temperature, by using materials that change in the same way

when they are heated or cooled.

      CNow that you know this rule you can make a thermometer of your own that will work.

      DThe water will rise in the straw. As the temperature of the air goes up, the water will

expand and rise even higher.

      EThey label these in different ways. On the Fahrenheit scale water freezes at 32 degrees and boils at 212 degrees. On the Celsius scale water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100degrees.

      FTake wax (you may use an old candle if you have one) and melt some of it right where the straw is struck into the cap to seal..粘住) them together.

      GPeople use thermometers which are made by themselves when travelling around the world.

 

Passage 4

     1      .One of the best things you can possibly do is to start you own clubIt’s great fun especially if you are the sort of person who feels there’s never anything to do during the school holidays

The first thing you need to come up with is an idea for your club     2      .Pets, clothes, pop music or dancing groups, sports, making things? The list is endless

Next you need some friends to be in your club with you       3       .All you need is three or four other people who are interested in the same thing as you

        4       .You should all sit down somewhere together with lots of pieces of paper and write down every name you can think upThat’ll keep you busy for ages

At your first meeting you should make up a rule bookAnd the first rule should be no grown-ups or little,big brothers or sisters! The best clubs are always secret!

Now you have just about everything you need, except membership cards These are very important and again you can speed a lot of time making them        5           .Why not leave some space for a photo of yourself? That will make the membership card really look like it

So there you are, get clubbing! Once you get started you’ll think of loads of more interesting things to do!

A.  That’s easy

B.  Enjoy your own club!

C.  Invite a designer to join you

D.  What are you interested in?

E.  Some vacation is just around the corner

F.  Then you need to pick a name for your club

G.  Use a bright thick pen to make a special design

 

Passage 5

My mother is a diligent and kind woman. She is very busy from morning till night. As a teacher, she works hard.       1       . Both my brother and I love her dearly as she loves us.

My mother has been teaching math at a middle school in my hometown. She goes to work early in the morning and does not return home until late in the afternoon.      2      . She treats them with patience and teaches them well. For her excellent quality and very good teaching results, she has been elected as a model teacher several times.

      3       .Every day, when she comes back home from work, she sets about doing housework, sweeping the living room and bedrooms or cleaning the furniture, and putting everything in good order. She seems to be busy all the time. As she has been very busy working every day, she looks older than her age. But she looks as cheerful and happy as ever. Mother never buys expensive dresses for herself, but she often buys some inexpensive but high quality clothes for us.      4      . She just eats a plain meal outside when she is too busy to cook herself. She lives a busy yet simple life, without any complaints.

Often she says to us, “work while you work, and play while you play. That is the way to be happy and gay. If you do not work, you will become lazy and be of no use to society”. What a piece of good advice this is!       5       .This advice of hers will always serve as a guide to my behavior. My mother is great indeed, and I always feel proud of her.

A. She enjoys listening to classic music.

B. As a mother, she takes good care of us and gives us every comfort.

C. She loves her students and cares for them.

D. She never goes to expensive restaurants to enjoy meals.

E. My mother is hard-working and never wastes money.

F. I never forget it and always bear it in my mind.

G. Can you tell us something about your mother?

 

 

深度提升篇:

Passage 6 

1)                . Early man first danced to express anger, joy and other strong feelings and when he discovered that if he danced in front of another person that person usually wanted to dance as well, he used dancing as a way of passing on his feelings to others.

2)                . You may think that the head man was acting a part rather than performing a dance, but acting and dancing are the same thing for primitive people: they dance an act and act a dance.

The head man would not act to please the tribe. He would dance to arouse their feelings and to make them want to copy him. When his dance-act had begun to arouse them, his men would spring to their feet and join in as if they were all playing a game. Once he had his followers playing at being animals the head man would change his mood, stop being the animal and act the part of a hunter. Soon the animal-men would pick up this second idea and some would change into hunters, dancing round pretending to shoot at the animals. 3)                .

Some primitive tribes living today who can speak perfectly well still use dance-acts to pass on very important moods and messages. They speak of such dancing as "making medicine" and the head man as the medicine man. For primitive peoples medicine and dancing are magic powers just like the unseen power which creates life and makes living creatures grow. The growing times of trees and crops and the growing heat of the sun, the changing seasons, winter, spring, summer and autumn, were each celebrated by its own particular form of dance among primitive peoples. 4)                .

     5)              . However, long before the days of the great civilizations the earliest European hunters who painted on the walls of caves in France and Spain included dancing medicine men among the pictures of the animals they killed for food. It was clearly the custom 10,000 years ago to dance at the changing seasons and there is every reason to think that these magic dances went on in Europe even long after the birth of Christianity.    

 

(A) It is really astonishing how man in every part of the world and in every age seems to have had dances to mark the seasons, making up religious ceremonies to show how death approaches in the winter but is conquered by life returning in the spring.

(B) Gradually these seasonal dances changed into folk dances. Some of them have kept a little of the old "medicine" and the country people still think that "the old dances" make magic. In a few instances in England there are animal men who dress up and dance just on one day in the year.

(C) This was the moment for the chief to lead his excited hunters to chase and kill the animals they needed for food. The hunt was planned and completed without any words of command or argument.

(D) For Example , if the chief man of a tribe in the Stone Age wanted to get his followers busy hunting for meat, he told them what he wanted not in words but by dancing, For this dance he dressed himself up to look like an animal, perhaps with horns and tail, and jumped up and down, making animal movements and noises.

(E) If you study and compare the "medicine" folk dances of Britain and the rest of Europe with one another and with primitive native dances in other parts of the world, you will find that they are very much alike. They all seem to represent in one way or another a struggle between life and death.

(F) These religious dances are still found among primitive native societies and we know that all the great civilizations of past ages also had such dances—Egypt, Persia, India, Greece and Rome. There are figures of dances in the pictures of old buildings, on ancient painted pots and so on.

(G) Dancing is most likely the oldest art of all and out of it have grown acting and, most probably, music, since the first musical sounds must have been the beat of the drum and the chants of the dancers.

 

Passage 7

    The automobile industry ranks as among the most lucrative and powerful industries of the twentieth century. There are presently 500 million cars on Earth, or one car for every ten people. Sales of the automobile industry stand at about a trillion dollars, making it the world's biggest manufacturing industry.

The car, and the roads it travels on, will be revolutionized in the twenty-first century. The key to tomorrow's "smart cars" will be sensors. 1) _______________.

Approximately 40,000 people are killed each year in the United States in traffic accidents. The number of people that are killed or badly injured in car accidents is so vast that we don't even bother to mention them in the newspapers anymore. Fully half of these fatalities come from drank drivers, and many others from carelessness. 2) ______________.

Smart cars have already been built which can monitor one's driving and the driving conditions nearby. Small radars hidden in the bumpers can scan for nearby cars. Should you make a serious driving mistake (e.g., change lanes when there is a car in your "blind spot") the computer would sound an immediate warning.

At the MIT Media Lab, a prototype is already being built which will determine how sleepy you are as you drive, which is especially important for long-distance truck drivers. The monotonous, almost hypnotic process of staring at the center divider for long hours is a grossly underestimated, life-threatening hazard. 3) ______________.

Two of the most frustrating things about driving a car are getting lost and getting stuck in traffic. 4) ______________. We already have twenty-four Navstar satellites orbiting the earth, making up what is called the Global Positioning System. They make it possible to determine your location on the earth to within about a hundred feet. At any given time, there are several GPS satellites orbiting overhead at a distance of about 11,000 miles. Each satellite contains four "atomic clocks," which vibrate at a precise frequency, according to the laws of the quantum theory.

As a satellite passes overhead, it sends out a radio signal that can be detected by a receiver in a car's computer. 5) _____________.

 

A) While the computer revolution is unlikely to cure these problems, it will have a positive impact. Sensors in your car tuned to radio signals from orbiting satellites can locate your car precisely at any moment and warn of traffic jams.

B) "We'll see vehicles and roads that see and hear and feel and smell and talk and act," predicts Bill Spreitzer, technical director of General Motors Corporation's ITS program, which is designing the smart car and road of the future.

C) With the price of microchips dropping so drastically, future applications of GPS are virtually limitless. Promoters of this computerized highway have great hopes for its future.

D) A smart car could eliminate most of these car accidents. It can sense if a driver is drunk via electronic sensors that can pick up alcohol vapor in the air, and refuse to start up the engine. The car could also alert the police and provide its precise location if it is stolen.

[E] Even the automobile industry, which has remained largely unchanged for the last seventy years, is about to feel the effects of the computer revolution.

[F] The car's computer can then calculate how far the satellite is by measuring how long it took for the signal to arrive. Since the speed of light is well known, any delay in receiving the satellite's signal can be converted into a distance.

[G] To eliminate this, a tiny camera hidden in the dashboard can be trained on a driver's face and eyes. If the driver's eyelids close for a certain length of time and his or her driving becomes erratic, a computer in the dashboard could alert the driver.

 

 

 

 

 

题型三  篇章阅读理解之  十五选

Part 1  大纲解析 

本部分采用选词填空的方式进行考查,一般200词左右的短文10个空格,要求考生从15个备选词中选择10个正确的的词汇填空,使短文复原。应对此题型一般分两个步骤: 一,从语法层面确定选词的词性、二,根据上下文确定词意。

Part 2  例题讲解 

Passage 1

The modern world could not operate without roads. It is a way of life with almost every family in the western world  1  an automobile. In Australia alone, billions of dollars are spent on road  2  and enhancements each year, such as new bridges and highway development. Highways are the public’s main   3  of transportation to reach other towns and cities with the increased speed limits to make  4  quicker. In contrast town roads are  5  for short travel with many streets and sharp turns to negotiate at  6  speeds and for the pedestrians to cross at convenient places like traffic lights. Research studies in the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States have shown that human issues  7  to 95 % of accidents, road factors only to about one fifth of that percentage and vehicle factors to fewer than 5%.

With road improvements speed has been allowed to rise,  8  for special reasons like school and residential areas where the limit has been lowered. Current speed limits are necessary. The speeds on normal roads in Australia  9  from 40km/h to 110km/h which is due to the series of road  10 . Specialization of motor vehicles is a very common process which allows the driver to enhance his/her automobile to obtain the desired appearance or performance ability. It is only when this process gets out of control that the driver becomes a risk.

 

A) allowing

B) slower

C) situations

D) source

E) traveling

F) level

G) range

H) change

I) designed

J) owning

K) maintenance

L) contribute

M) attribute

N) faster

O) except

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Passage 2

The Swedes are among the most charming peoples in Europe. And their charm comes form a(n)  1  contradiction in the national character. They are  2  conservative in social relationships; within the family and when meeting friends and business acquaintances, their conduct is  3  by strict social patterns. At the same time, they are one of the most intellectually progressive people in the world. They are always open to new ideas.

All social occasions in Sweden are regulated by rules and traditions. And these traditions are expressed in a  4  ritual made up of formal bows, handshakes, and greetings. When a visitor  5  a Swedish home, he is invariably received with a “welcome”; when he leaves, his host will tell him “ You will be welcome again.” These charming phrases are an indestructible part of Swedish social life and they give it an old-world flavor of good  6  .

The Swedes are an efficient and most6 capable people. Punctuality is more than a virtue to them-it is a rule of life  7  from the most attractive charming characteristics of this northern people. This is their respect for their friends and acquaintances and especially for the visitors to their country. At whatever cost to themselves, they take care not to give another person the slightest  8  of discomfort.

This  9  fro human rights runs through the whole Swedish social system. Courtesy had been  10  into a social instinct in Sweden. It is part of the spirit of the life based on a national culture which is wholly Scandinavian.

 

A) resigned

B) respect

C) degree

D) originating

E) manners

F) considered

G) governed

H) extremely

I) breakthrough

J) enters

K) specific

L) effective

M) developed

N) independently

O) apparent

 

 

Part 3  综合练习

Passage 1

What is it about Americans and food? We love to eat, but we feel  1  about it afterward. We say we want only the best, but we strangely enjoy junk food. We’re  2  with health and weight loss but face an unprecedented epidemic of obesity(肥胖). Perhaps the  3  to this ambivalence(矛盾情结) lies in our history. The first Europeans came to this continent searching for new spices but went in vain. The first cash crop(经济作物) wasn’t eaten but smoked. Then there was Prohibition, intended to prohibit drinking but actually encouraging more  4  ways of doing it.
  The immigrant experience, too, has been one of inharmony. Do as Romans do means eating what “real Americans” eat, but our nation’s food has come to be  5  by imports—pizza, say, or hot dogs. And some of the country’s most treasured cooking comes from people who arrived here in shackles.
  Perhaps it should come as no surprise then that food has been a medium for the nation’s defining struggles, whether at the Boston Tea Party or the sit-ins at southern lunch counters. It is integral to our concepts of health and even morality whether one refrains from alcohol for religious reasons or for political  6  .
  But strong opinions have not brought  7  . Americans are ambivalent about what they put in their mouths. We have become  8  of our foods, especially as we learn more about what they contain.
  The  9  in food is still prosperous in the American consciousness. It’s no coincidence, then, that the first Thanksgiving holds the American imagination in such bondage(束缚). It’s what we eat—and how we  10  it with friends, family, and strangers—that help define America as a community today.


A. answer  B. result  C. share   D. guilty    E. constant F. Defined G. vanish                 H.adapted   I. creative    J. belief      K. suspicious  L. certainty M. obsessed  N. identify 

O. ideals
  
Passage 2

Americans are proud of their variety and individuality, yet they love and respect few things more than a uniform. Why are uniforms so __1__ in the United States? Among the arguments for uniforms, one of the first is that in the eyes of most people they look more __2__ than civilian clothes. People have become conditioned to __3__ superior quality from a man who wears a uniform. The television repairman who wears a uniform tends to __4__ more trust than one who appears in civilian clothes. Faith in the __5__ of a garage mechanic is increased by a uniform. What an easier way is there for a nurse, a policeman, a barber, or a waiter to __6__ professional identity than to step out of uniform? Uniforms also have many __7__ benefits. They save on other clothes. They save on laundry bills. They are often more comfortable and more durable than civilian clothes.

Primary among the arguments against uniforms is their lack of variety and the consequent loss of __8__ experienced by people who must wear them. Though there are many types of uniforms, the wearer of any particular type is generally stuck with it, without __9__, until retirement. When people look alike, they tend to think, speak, and act __10__, on the job at least.

 

A.skill  B.popular   C.get  D.change   E.similarly   F.professional  G.character   H.individuality   

I.inspire  J.differently   K.expect   L.practical   M.recall   N.lose  O.ordinary  

 

Passage 3

What is exactly a lie? Is it anything we say which we know is untrue? Or is it something more than that? For Example ,  1  a friend wants to borrow money from you, you say, “I wish I could help you but I’m short of money myself.” In fact, you are not short of money but your friend is in the  2  of not paying his debts and you don’t want to hurt his feelings by  3  him of this. Is this really a lie?

A scientific study shows women are better liars than men, particularly when telling a “ 4  lie”, such as when a woman at a party tells another woman that she likes her dress when she really thinks it looks  5  . However, this is only one side of the story. Other researchers show that men are more likely to tell more  6  lies, such as making a promise they have no  7  of fulfilling. This is the kind of lie politicians and businessmen are supposed to be particularly  8  at: the lie from which the liar hopes to profit or  9  in some way.

Research has also been done into the way people’s behavior changed when they lie. It has been found that if they are sitting down at the same time, they  10  to move about in their chairs more than usual. To the trained observer they are saying “I wish I were somewhere else now.”

 

A) remember

B) skilled

C) accusing

D) habit

E) tend

F) heart

G) suppose

H) reminding

I) white

J) gain

K) terrible

L) intention

M) serious

N) idea

O) empty

 

 

Passage 4

Nowadays, is it possible to tell a persons class just by looking at him? Physical details __1__ tell us about health, diet and type of work done. A hundred years ago the working class very often lookd unhealthy, small and were either too thin or too fat. The upper classes were often __2__, sporting types who were used to a good diet and looked healthy. Today living and working conditions have improved, and such __3__ would no longer be so true. The clothes people choose to wear, however, do provide information about their __4__. The most obvious way in which is for the amount of money spent on them. Expensive clothes look expensive and show their wearer had money. Clothes can provide other __5__ as well. The upper classes __6__ to be less interested in fashion and wear good quality clothes in non-bright colours, made of natural material like wool, leather or cotton. Lower working class people often choose clothes in bright colours, made of man-made material. A sociological explanation for this would be that color and interest are mssing from their lives, and therefore any opportunity to introduce this is __7__.Clothes are __8__ at a price within most people’s reach. New clothes make the wearer feel good, and show some __9__ of wealth to the outside world. Today some new fashions are started by the lower working class people who want to look __10__ and feel important. They want people to look at them.

 

A.available B. background   C. different  D.tall  E.totally  F. taken     G. descriptions   H. degree  I. clues   J. alone      K. appear       L. consider  M. full    N. hobby     O.fetched 

   

Passage 5

Many a young person tells me he wants to be a writer. I always __1__ such people, but I also explain that theres a big difference between "being a writer" and writing. In most cases these individuals are dreaming of __2__ and fame, not the long hours alone at a typewriter. "Youve got to want to write," I say to them, "not want to be a writer."The reality is that writing is a __3__, private and poor-paying affair. For every writer kissed by fortune there are thousands more whose longing is never __4__. When I left a 20-year career in the US. Coast Guard to become a free lance writer(自由撰稿人), I had no __5__ at all. What I did have was a friend who found me my room in a New York apartment building. It didnt even matter that it was __6__and had no bathroom. I immediately bought a used manual typewriter and felt like a __7__ writer. After a year or so, however, I still hadnt gotten a break and began to __8__ myself. It was so hard to sell a story that __9__ made enough to eat. But I knew I wanted to write. I had dreamed about it for years. I wasnt going to be one of those people who die wondering, what if? I would keep putting my dream to the test----even though it meant living with __10__and fear of failure. This is the Shadow land of hope, and anyone with a dream learn to live there.

 

A. barely  B. genuine  C. rewarded  D. doubt  E. lonely  F. poverty  G. persuade  H. prospects  I. uncertainty  J. impossibly  K. encourage  L. awarded  M. alone  N. wealth  O. cold

 


 

第二部分  综合测试(Integrated Testing)

题型一  完形填空(cloze

Part 1  考纲解析

    完形填空 (Cloze) 部分采用多项选择题的形式进行考查。这部分测试采用一篇200词左右的短文。短文有20个空格,空格处所删去的词既有实词也有虚词,每个空格为一题,每题有四个选择项。要求考生选择一个最佳答案,使短文的意思和结构恢复完整。涉及到语法、短语的固定搭配、对上下问的理解、句与句之间的逻辑关系等。

 

Part 2  题型分类讲解

一.语境词汇题

   专升本考试完形填空对词汇的考查在很大程度上与上下文的语境有关,也就是填入哪个单词要依赖于试题的上文或下文,从已知信息中推论出未知信息,这是专升本考试完形填空考查的重点和方向,同时要注意填入的单词和周围单词的语义搭配问题。

 

例题:

1. Wise buying is a positive way in which you can make your money go further. The  67  go about purchasing an article or a service can actually save you money or can add to the cost

67.A) formal      B) way            C) method        D) fashion

 

2. The way you go about purchasing an article or a service can actually save you money or can add to the costBefore you buy an expensive  84  , or a service, do check the price

84.A) item        B) element         C) particle        D) component

3. Forcing yourself to recall (almost) never helps because it doesnt  81  your memory; it only tightens it

81. A) loosen         B) weaken            C) decrease              D) reduce

二.固定搭配题

  固定搭配题在完形填空中占了15%左右的比重,在专升本英语考试完形填空中主要考查的固定搭配题包括对动词短语、名词短语、形容词短语、介词短语的考查。

例题: 1. They are  79   of free fresh fruit. They want to get back to their herds and start farming again

79. A) seeking         B) dreaming           C) longing            D) searching2. This new 48 (view) of children and the frequent contact between the members of society has also 49 an increasing interest in child­raising techniques. People today spend much time  50 (seeking) the proper way to 51 (raise) children.

49A. led in Bbrought in Cresulted in Dtaken in

三.语法结构题

在专升本英语考试中完形填空常考的语法项目有:动词的时态和语态、非谓语动词、定语从句、宾语从句、虚拟语气、倒装结构等。

例题:

1. We started thinking of  86  to do about it, says Eric Shashoua, chief executive officer of Axon Sleep Research Laboratories.

86.  A) what              B) how             C) whether              D) when

2. They do not provide energy,    do they construct or build any part of the body.

A) either            B)so            C) nor            D) never

 

四.逻辑推理题

逻辑关系主要包括因果关系、列举关系、解说关系、分类关系、比较关系、对照关系等。解答逻辑推理题需要理顺要填入的逻辑关系词前后文的语义,从中判断两句话之间的关系。

例题:

1. One third thought Columbus reached the New World after 1750. Two thirds cannot correctly lock the Civil War between 1850 and 1900.  71  when they get the answers right, some are just guessing.

71.A) Even          B) Though           C) Thus            D) So

    2.The foreign research scholar usually isolates himself in the laboratory as a means of protection;   77   , what he needs is to be fitted into a highly organized university system 

77. A) otherwise      B) moreover          C) however         D) also   

 

五.前后语境题

考查考生根据上下文提供的信息进行分析及推理的能力。完形填空题中绝大多数属这种题型。有的根据上文、有的根据下文、有的要上下文结合,甚至通篇看完并理解才能作出正确的选择。

 

例题:

They are different      their elements are arranged differently, …… 

A. in that B. so that C. such that D. except that

This does not mean that adults must accept irresponsibility.  __  , they can help students acquire a sense of commitment.   

A. On the contrary   B. On the average  C. On the whole D. On the other hand

 

 

六.文章结构题

考查考生对文章脉络层次的把握能力。

例题:  

First of all, I respected his devotion to teaching______, I admired the fact that he would talk to students outside the classroom or talkFinally, I was attracted by his lively sense of humor.

A. Later                                       B. Secondly              

C. However                                 D. Therefore

 

七.经验常识题

考查在日常的学习和生活中所积累的经验和基本常识,以及一些基本的科学常识

例题:

1. But we ran so much that, afterwards, we had trouble        .

A. speaking    B. sleeping   C. breathing   D. moving

2.  A fret   4   shouts of wildly wrong guesses the professor smiled a thin dry smile announced the   5   answer

5.A. ready          B. possible            C. correct         D. difficult

 

 

Part 3 综合小练习1

Passage 1

When its 10:15 in New York, its 9:15 in Salt Lake City, and 7:15 in San Francisco isnt it? This consistent and orderly time system, based on a grid of time 1 , seems so natural that people ___2___ give it a moments thought. So you may find it surprising to learn that prior to the late 1800s each community ___3___ its own time by looking at the sun. When the sun shone directly overhead in Washington, D.C., for example, it was 12:00 noon there; up the road in Philadelphia, ___4___, it was 12:07, and in Boston it was 12:24. To measure time with absolute accuracy, it is necessary to move the clock about one minute for every twelve miles of distance; so according to sun timeyour pocket watch would be slightly ___5___ if you ventured only a few miles down the road.

It was not until the advent of widespread railroad travel that a need ___6___ for ___7___ time. At one point over 300 local times were honored within the ___8___, making it literally impossible for trains to arrive consistently on time ___9___. As a result, in 1883 the continental, United States was divided into four time longitude. The standardization resulting from this system ___10___ so helpful that in 1884 the International Meridian Conference applied the same procedure to establish time zones around the world.

1. A. areas          B. districts         C. zones     D. divisions

2. A. usually      B. never         C. only         D. rarely

3. A. made      B. established     C.  arranged     D. founded

4. A. however      B. therefore         C. meanwhile D. by contrast

5. A. different      B. wrong         C. incorrect     D. mistaken

6. A. arrived      B. raised         C. happened     D. arose

7. A. regularized  B. organized         C. corrected     D. standardized

8. A. state          B. county         C. world     D. country

9. A. everywhere  B. anywhere         C. nowhere     D. somewhere

10. A. was proved  B. has been proved C. was proving D. proving

 

Passage 2

Habits, whether good or bad, are gradually formed. When a person does a certain thing again, he is impelled( 推动,迫使) by some unseen   1   to do the same thing repeatedly; thus a habit is formed.   2   a habit is formed, it is difficult, and sometimes impossible, to get rid of. It is therefore very   3   that we should pay great attention to the formation of habits. Children often form    4    habits, some of which remain with them as   5   as they live. Older persons also form bad habits, and sometimes become ruined by   6   .

There are other habits which, when formed in early life, are of great   7   . Many successful men say that much of their success has    8   to do with certain habits in early life, such as early rising, honesty and thoroughness(彻底性).

 Among the habits which children should not form are laziness, lying, stealing and so on, these are all    9   formed habits. Unfortunately older persons often form habits which ought to have been   10   

We ought to keep from all these bad habits, and try to form such habits as will prove good for ourselves and others.

1. A. action        B. courage   C. force    D. energy

2.A. For       B. Once        C. Because D. If

3. A. possible     B. important C. useful    D. helpful

4. A. good B. useless C. bad D. unchangeable

5. A. far        B. soon C. long D. early

6. A. themselves B. them C. one D. oneself

7. A. help        B. harm   C. uselessness    D. hardness

8. A. anything   B. nothing C. something D. everything

9. A. possible    B. hardly C. difficult D. easily

10. A. forgotten B. remembered C. kept D. Avoided

 

Passage 3

Nowadays, most employees of local high-tech industries are below the age of 35, and for newly rising industries such as computer software and the Internet, the figure is below 30.

 People in this age bracket are known as Generation-X, which is 1 those born between 1963 and 1981. 2  with those born from 1946 to 1960, Generation-X are typically 3  , they value free will, are willing to try out new methods and are full of creative ideas. Howeverthey also have their ___4____. Employers often complain that Generation-X are a group hard to manage.

Although willingness and enthusiasm (热情) are highly ___5____by Generation-X, they will not accept orders ___6____. In short, Generation-X will not ___7____authoritarian (独裁的) leadership. They ___8____their leaders to have a detailed understanding of the job, and most importantly, to treat them    9  partners.

As a result, managing Generation-X employees is not only a science but also an art. There are basic guidelines to follow in managing them and helping them   10   at their best.

1Amade up Bconsist of Ccomposing of Dmade up of

2Acomparing Bcontrast Ccompared Dliken

3Aindependent Breliable Cdependent Dtraditional

4Amerits Bobstacles Cadvantages Dshortcomings

5Acriticized Bagreed Cvalued Dcontrolled

6Ablindly Bsensibly Cseriously Dcautiously

7Areceive Baccept Cdeal with Dadmit

8Athink Bhope Csuppose Dexpect